Richard Gardner

Professor Emeritus of Law and International Organization, Columbia University; former US Ambassador to Italy and Spain

Richard N. Gardner is professor emeritus of law and international organization at Columbia University. He served as U.S. ambassador to Italy and Spain and as deputy assistant secretary of State for International Organization Affairs.

He is a former member of the President's Advisory Committee on Trade Policy and Negotiations (ACTPN) and the State Department's Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP).

Professor Gardner is the author of numerous articles and books on international affairs, including his Oxford thesis Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy, which has been described as the "classic" study of Anglo-American economic collaboration. He is the author of "In Pursuit of World Order: US Foreign Policy and International Organization." His latest book, "Mission Italy: On the Front Lines of the Cold War," was published in Italian (2004) and in English (2005).

Mr. Gardner holds a Doctor of Jurisprudence from Yale Law School; a Doctor of Philosophy degree in economics from Oxford, where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar; and a B.A. in economics from Harvard College. He is a Senior Fellow of the Salzburg Global Seminar and has served as a faculty member numerous times at Salzburg.


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