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Looking Back - Chanel at the Schloss
Looking Back - Chanel at the Schloss
Salzburg Global Seminar 
Staff at Hotel Schloss Leopoldskron were sad to learn iconic designer Karl Lagerfeld passed away on Tuesday. We remember hosting his show in 2014 where he unveiled his pre-Fall 2015 collection for Chanel. This show brought together the great and good of the fashion world and brought Leopoldskron to life in a new and exciting way. Our thoughts remain with Mr. Lagerfeld’s family and friends. The article below was first published in December 2014. Schloss Leopoldskron, home of Salzburg Global Seminar, has played host to people from across a multitude of backgrounds in its 400 years – from politics to business, civil society to the arts – providing many with “pure inspiration.” This month, the historic Schloss hosted the great and good of the fashion world as world famous designer Karl Lagerfeld unveiled his pre-Fall 2015 collection for Chanel. Speaking from the lakeside terrace of Schloss Leopoldskron, Lagerfeld explained to Vogue magazine about his choice of venue: “Schloss Leopoldskron is where Max Reinhardt founded the Salzburg Festival. This was the seat of intellectual and cultural creative genesis.”  In an exclusive interview with Salzburg Global Seminar after the successful show, Lagerfeld spoke warmly of his own memories of Schloss Leopoldskron, having visited previously and long held a fascination with the palace's history. “I know Schloss Leopoldskron very well,” said Lagerfeld. “We took great photos here already 26 years ago... For me, the Schloss belongs to the history of the German-language theater and culture between 1920 and 1938, together with Max Reinhardt. These things are very dear to my heart.” Following in the footsteps of Coco Chanel and her own Austrian experience in the 1930s when she saw a hotel bellboy’s jacket that inspired her famous braid-trimmed jacket, Lagerfeld’s “Paris-Salzburg 2014/15 Metiers d’Art collection” incorporates elements of traditional Austrian dress with a modern, fashionable twist. A short film – Reincarnation – chronicling Coco Chanel’s bellboy encounter and starring model Cara Delevingne and singer Pharrell Williams premiered in Salzburg ahead of the December 2 show at Schloss Leopoldskron. In the two weeks leading up to the show, the international team of Chanel had exclusive use of Schloss Leopoldskron as the whole of the first floor of the palace was transformed into an unorthodox catwalk with models such as Delevingne, Kendall Jenner and Lara Stone parading down the stairs to the Venetian Room and the White Room, through the Marble Hall, to the Chinese Room and the Max Reinhardt Library.  Accompanying the sumptuous buffets in every room, additional period furniture was brought in, with floors re-polished, rooms re-painted and details re-fixed especially for the star-studded show.  As well as actresses Rooney Mara and Geraldine Chaplin and singer Lily Allen, guests also included Salzburg Global Seminar’s own Vice President and Chief Program Officer Clare Shine and Hotel Schloss Leopoldskron General Manager Daniel Szelényi. “We often tell both our Salzburg Global Fellows and hotel guests that this magnificent building isn’t a museum – it’s a living, breathing space. Reinhardt famously said that he had ‘lived every room, every table, every chair, every light, and every picture’ here at Schloss Leopoldskron. That Karl Lagerfeld has taken the same approach with his show is a great honor to Reinhardt,” said Shine. “We were delighted to have Chanel choose Hotel Schloss Leopoldskron as the location for their pre-Fall show,” said Szelényi. “We are especially delighted with the various detailed improvements they were able to deliver for the show, which will continue to help us in our transformation and stewardship of this beautiful building,” he added. You can see more of the photos from the show, along with social media posts from journalists, guests and the models themselves in our Storify collection: View the story "Chanel transforms Schloss Leopoldskron for Métiers d'Art" on Storify Coverage from Chanel:
Blog: chanel-news.chanel.com/en/home.html Photos: chanel-news.chanel.com/en/home/2014/12/the-show-decor.gallery.html Coverage from Vogue: Photos: www.vogue.com/slideshow/5719479/chanel-pre-fall-2015-backstage/ Review: www.vogue.com/fashion-week/5710619/chanel-pre-fall-2015-rtw/ “Best Instagrams”: www.vogue.com/5715271/chanel-pre-fall-2015-show-best-instagrams-salzburg/ #s3gt_translate_tooltip_mini { display: none !important; }
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LGBT Rights in South Asia: What Next?
LGBT Rights in South Asia: What Next?
Heng Yeh Yee 
“We have to bid adieu to prejudices and empower all citizens,” said Dipak Misra, who was Chief Justice when India’s Supreme Court decriminalized homosexuality in September 2018. The court’s decision to strike down Section 377, a colonial-era law banning gay sex, was a watershed victory in the fight for human rights. Progress like this, naturally, does not happen in a vacuum. India’s verdict directly referenced Nepal’s landmark ruling in 2007, which resulted in legal protection for LGBT individuals, as well as official recognition of a third gender. In subsequent years, similar legislation acknowledging a third gender was enacted in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India; Pakistan celebrated its first Trans Pride Parade just last year. Moreover, Sri Lanka and Bhutan have allowed people to change their legal gender.  However, discrimination and abuse against the LGBT community, including transgender and intersex people, are still prevalent in the region. Even in India and Nepal, the decriminalization of homosexuality is only the first step of many in the battle for civil rights and wider acceptance.  Elsewhere in South Asia, similar colonial-era laws prohibiting same-sex relations are found in the penal codes of Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Although few cases are actually prosecuted under these laws, such criminalization contributes to the stigmatization of LGBT individuals in the media, public, and the workplace. Attempts to push for regulations that safeguard the existence of LGBT individuals in Pakistan, Maldives, and Afghanistan have to grapple with the presence of Sharia law.  These issues and more will be addressed at the Salzburg Global LGBT* Forum at its sixth program to be held in Kathmandu, Nepal, February 24 to March 1. The program, Advancing Legal and Social Equality in South Asia, again held in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)’s Being LGBTI in Asia and the Pacific program, will consider recent legal and political developments in the region, along with how participants may engage in these shifts to mobilize societies towards legal and social acceptance of the LGBT community.  The Forum is no stranger to highlighting region-specific challenges and solutions – a previous program in Thailand focused on the progress of the LGBT rights movement in South East Asia, giving space to voices often underrepresented in global discourse, and in 2014, the Forum met to provide advice to the German, Dutch and EU Foreign Offices on how their embassies around the world could better support LGBT human rights organizations. Nepal, the location for this year’s program, is a nation widely seen as a predecessor for progressive attitudes towards sexual orientation and gender identity within South Asia. The six-day program shall include approximately 40 Fellows from various professional backgrounds, with a majority from South Asia. The assembly of this network will aid in forming connections between human rights defenders across nations, regions, and generations, who will then expand their collaboration in devising new projects and campaigns to help advance legal and social equality in countries across South Asia and around the world. Launched in 2013, the Salzburg Global LGBT Forum has brought together over 150 Fellows from more than 70 countries who work for the advancement of LGBT and human rights. “Together with Salzburg Global, I conceived the Forum as a safe space to curate a truly global conversation on LGBT equality among diverse leaders from human rights, legal, artistic, and religious backgrounds,” wrote Founder and Chair of the Forum, Dr. Klaus Mueller.  “Fundamental human rights concern us all. The Salzburg Global LGBT Forum brings together queer and straight, representing gender in many expressions, in short: people with overlapping, changing identities. Whether homo-, bi- or heterosexual, cis-, inter- or transgender, our diverse backgrounds and lives are connected by our shared interest to advance LGBT equality globally.” The Forum aims to create an open platform for discussion that will result in the promotion of inclusive policymaking at a national level, which should benefit and protect gender and sexual minorities.  In Nepal, there will also be a focus on how humanistic storytelling through multimedia productions may serve to destigmatize LGBT identities, sharing the narratives of these marginalized voices with wider society. Videos produced by and with Fellows of the Forum will be shared online in the coming months. As in 2016 in Thailand, the Salzburg Global LGBT Forum is being held in partnership with the UNDP’s Being LGBTI in Asia and the Pacific program, and is this year also supported by long-time supporters of the Salzburg Global LGBT Forum, the German Federal Foreign Ministry and the Archangel Michael Foundation, with additional support from EQUAL GROUND, The Nippon Foundation, the Korea Foundation and the Ann M. Hoefle Memorial Fellowship.   * LGBT: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender. We use this term as it is widely used in human rights conversations on sexual orientation and gender identity in many parts of the world. We wish it to be read as inclusive of other cultural concepts that express sexuality and gender, intersex and gender-nonconforming identities.
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Examining Successful Strategies to Support Better Health
The Health Foundation will work with Salzburg Global to help deliver the program
Examining Successful Strategies to Support Better Health
Salzburg Global Seminar 
Salzburg Global Seminar and the Health Foundation have signed a deal for a new health program focused on exploring how business strategies could support better health. Bridging Worlds: How Can We Use Business and Economic Development Strategies to Support Better Health? will take place between April 29 and May 3, 2019, at Schloss Leopoldskron, Salzburg, Austria. The Health Foundation has agreed to support the delivery of the program. This program will seek to: Facilitate dialogue and continued cross-border learning across a diverse range of sectors including those with a responsibility for the public’s health, economic development, poverty reduction, and business. Identify best practice in order to promote better strategic alignment between initiatives designed to promote inclusive growth and initiatives designed to promote better health and reduce health inequalities. Develop a Salzburg Statement and other policy recommendations in relation to the future of work and its impact on health. Change-makers from across generations and sectors will be invited to take part in a highly interactive program, which will involve them building new insights and aggregating perspectives and experiences from relevant industries, areas of expertise and regions. Participants will address the following key questions during their stay: What role do businesses play in promoting inclusive economies within the communities in which they are based? To what extent is this role health enhancing? What policies, legislative and fiscal frameworks have been effective in promoting more inclusive economies? Who should be responsible for closing regional gaps in opportunity? How can local areas best take advantage of emerging employment opportunities as a route to more inclusive economies? What will demographic, consumer and technological trends mean for the way we work? What in turn will this mean for our health (i.e., how will trends affecting the future of work, in turn, affect our health)? How can we best use these changing trends to design in health-enhancing policies? How can we ensure that policies support individuals to flourish at different stages of the life course? And how can we plan for emerging trends that will change the way in which young people today might experience the world of work as they age? How do we ensure that adoption of changing and new jobs roles (and the loss of existing roles) due to technological change improve health and do not exacerbate existing health inequalities? What can be done to address these risks and what can be done to support areas already experiencing disadvantage? How are different countries seeking to achieve alignment across sectors with reference to the SDGs? What policies or programs are the most effective? What does this mean for organizations or sectors doing this in practice? What capabilities do we need to build in the system to make the most of the systemic interconnected approach that the SDGs encourage? For more information about the program, please visit salzburgglobal.org/go/616
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Michael Chang – “Every Little Action from Everyone Counts”
Michael Chang in conversation at Salzburg Global Seminar
Michael Chang – “Every Little Action from Everyone Counts”
Oscar Tollast 
In October 2018, health and urban planning professionals from more than 15 countries convened in Salzburg to explore how urban environments can affect health and the public good. The group came together for Building Healthy, Equitable Communities: The Role of Inclusive Urban Development and Investment. Among the participants was Michael Chang, a project and policy manager at the Town and Country Planning Association. Chang, a chartered town planner, and an honorary member of the UK Faculty of Public Health, leads the Reuniting Health with Planning initiative of stakeholder engagement and policy research across the UK. We spoke with Michael after the program to discuss what he had learned and his decision to create the Health and Wellbeing in Planning Network. Read our interview below. SG: Building Healthy, Equitable Communities was your first experience of taking part in a Salzburg Global program. What were your expectations heading into the event? MC: I had high expectations and was highly excited heading into the event, after doing a bit of research into the organization, about its work and the impacts it has had over the years. I knew there would be a presence from colleagues across the globe so there would be an exciting melting pot of ideas, experiences, and cultures. I was looking forward to harnessing that energy and the opportunity the experience would bring to enhance my own work back in the UK. SG: How would you describe your experience in Salzburg? MC: I am not usually an expressive type of person, but I would describe the experience in Salzburg as phenomenal, a once in a lifetime opportunity and such a privilege. The setting gave me a safe thinking space which I don't usually have. The connections allowed me to share my thoughts openly with others. The [program] provided a structure for me to reflect on my own circumstances.    SG: What impact did the conversations and ideas generated at Schloss Leopoldskron have on your work? Was there an idea or perspective you heard which you hadn't considered before? MC: Everyone was open and honest with their conversations and professional views. I was grateful to everyone for this level of transparency. It did raise a couple of challenging conversations especially when it came to issues around racially-related inequalities in the American and South African contexts, and the nuance between ‘gentrification’ and “regeneration.” I learned that while as professionals, we may use these terms interchangeably to suit, it doesn't alter the level of impact our actions can have on local communities. Fortunately, as the experience of attending a planning conference in New Orleans earlier in 2018 was still fresh where such issues are very much at the fore, I was able to relate and have a broader mind-set during discussions. The ideas discussed and presented show that every little action from everyone counts, and sometimes the big idea may not be the answer. We don't tend to learn and acknowledge the lessons of the past and from others, so having that critical mass of thinkers and doers was really beneficial. SG: What's inspired you to move forward with the Health and Wellbeing in Planning Network? MC: I wanted to move forward with the idea of identifying [and] then bringing together that critical mass, at least initially in the UK context which doesn't currently exist in a structured way. The ability to exchange and share experiences, potential transferable solutions or even to have those challenging conversations at the Session demonstrated that perhaps if only initially replicated in a virtual forum, it would be worthwhile. The thinking space provided during smaller group discussions with colleagues such as Gemma McKinnon towards the end of the [program], and with external colleagues such as Rachel Flowers gave me the conviction to press the “go” button for the Health and Wellbeing in Planning Network. This meant activating a series of communication platforms via a LinkedIn group, a Twitter account, and a simple website. SG: What response have you had to the Network so far? MC: In the first weekend of the Network being set up on Twitter right after #SGSHealth, it had close to a couple of hundred followers already. By 2019 new year’s day the number of followers is at 350. On LinkedIn, the Network has 48 members, and on the website, there is a list of 17 members who sent in a short biography to be included. SG: In the long-term, what are your hopes for the Network? MC: It is still early days for the Network to be fully activated across its different communication platforms. I am hoping that the Network members will increase to build a critical mass of “public health planners,” its presence enhanced through its website and its value widely recognized, which means ultimately more virtual peer to peer exchanges taking place in 2019. The Network can function in a number of different ways that is focused on its members acting as ‘peers’ to help each other signpost requests for further support and technical expertise. I hope it can be self-sustaining and become the go-to one-stop-shop for information on all things about planning for health and wellbeing. SG: What do you think practitioners working to improve health and wellbeing need to know more about when it comes to planning? MC: The first step is to understand the parameters of what you mean by “planning.” Certainly, I learned that planning in the UK is very different from planning in the USA, South Africa or New Zealand. By understanding the parameters, you can begin to think about the possibilities including the limitations of what legislation and policy allow you to do. Most importantly this allows you to know who else you have to work with, engage and involve in the process, and appreciate that working together is always better than working alone. SG: The Network is in its early days, but what is one thing you have learned already? MC: It is important to articulate a need for an idea and whether such a need is sustained and regular or just a one-off. This can really be done by having lots of conversations with others so as well as understanding more about the target audience, you are also making links and thereby helping to create the need. Come back to me in a year or so to see whether I am on the right track or not! 
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Healthy Children, Healthy Weight - Making an Impact
Participants of Healthy Children, Healthy Weight outside Schloss Leopoldskron
Healthy Children, Healthy Weight - Making an Impact
Oscar Tollast 
Innovators from across the world have outlined new ways to help promote and safeguard children’s health and wellbeing. On the final day of the Healthy Children, Healthy Weight program, participants presented outputs from their workgroup discussions with the aim to help improve children’s lives. After four days of cross-border sharing and learning, more than 50 participants came together to outline the next steps forward and prepare recommendations for action. In total, seven groups put forward ideas. The first group to present sought to reframe the debate for healthy children and make change happen at a higher level. This group suggested creating a playbook of tactics which any broker or advocate of change could use to help push policies which better serve children. Brokers and advocates need to use their expertise, participants heard. These change-makers can move further forward by building alliances and aligning partnerships. Participants referred to this process as the “Salzburg schmooze” and indicated they had plans for a destination point where this information could be visible. Building on this proposal, the next group to present discussed the need for a values-driven learning journey for child and family programs. Participants in this group discussed developing a brief for practice leaders to better support meeting their program goals. As part of this process, the group developed five principles. They argued the goal of learning and evaluation is to accompany, scaffold, and strength both child and family programs and their leaders. They said organizations could and should use data iteratively as possible to improve programming. With data in mind, the group said many forms are valuable and have different weights to different stakeholders. This diversity of data should be taken into consideration. Various methods of learning and evaluation are appropriate for different phases and can contribute toward program learning. Finally, the group indicated the voices of families and staff could strengthen the design of research and evaluation. This point is the most important to consider, participants heard. Other parts of the group’s end-product included organizational readiness for evaluation, an overview of evaluation tools and instruments, ethical and equity considerations, and a glossary of terms. In short, the group’s end game is for leaders to have a more positive perspective when it comes to learning and evaluation. Having discussed the “Salzburg schmooze,” participants were introduced to the “Salzburg shift” in the third presentation of the day. This group’s members sought to revisit the model to optimize nutritional status and wellbeing that allows children to thrive across the world. Obesity and malnutrition can exist within the same country, and neither should be seen as separate challenges, participants heard. The group focused on areas including food systems, policy, regulation and finance, cultural practices, and emerging knowledge. Participants called for a greater understanding of the food system, reviewing the subsidies which fuel it and the shift needed to move toward a more localized approach. They also want to examine the relationship between industry and regulation, accessibility toward good food options, and the sugar tax dilemma. By learning more about cultural practices in different parts of the world, participants heard healthy eating could be promoted further through education, community leaders, and institutions. There is emerging knowledge concerning inflammation, infection, gut health, and the importance of sleep. Issues of intervention investing early are also gaining traction. The group has split these topics into three groups: program-ready, worthy of further investigation, and implementation research. Moving forward, members hope to shift the conversation be it in the form of a publication or collaboration. One message which emerged during the program is the variety of stakeholders involved in improving children’s health and wellbeing. One group decided to focus on how a healthy food economy could drive a successful city – rethinking health from a business perspective. Citing Amsterdam as an example, the presenter said the city had approximately 5,300 food outlets. Food marketing is everywhere and encourages people to spend money on “anytime food.” The approach, moving forward, should involve improving the quality of “anytime food.” The presenter for this group indicated that government authority should be utilized, while consumer demands should be optimized. This process would also involve supporting shop owners. An “anytime food” standard could be established by a council, for example. Shop owners could be supported through the creation of a ranking system for “anytime food” outlets, innovation challenges, and marketing and sales training. This paradigm shift toward healthy food could also involve community debates, workshops targeted at children, capacity building, a multi-level approach reaching all aspects of a child’s circle of influence. Another group worked on principles for governments to achieve health equity with a focus on indigenous and marginalized populations. Members of this group said all children, young people, and their families are valued, have a sense of belonging and control of their own destiny. These communities are inclusive, adapt to change, actively seek out those who feel invisible and engage them. The group aims to raise the visibility and voice of indigenous and marginalized people to achieve health equity. The group will do this through a paper that outlines principles for governments to shift power, mind-sets, policy and practice toward equity. Principles for success include voice and aspiration, accountability, transparency, identifying and addressing inequity in the system, and acknowledging and addressing the past. This work is targeted at all levels of government and will be influenced by indigenous leadership structures, including tribal authorities and other marginalized groups. There is a lot of literature on scaling, but not enough on what it means when systems scale. This view was shared by the next group to put forward their idea. This group focused on shifting power conditions to scale systems change, so all children, families, and communities thrive. Members of this group would like to work on an insight paper exploring the relationship between power, equity, and scale. This approach includes examining the underlying hypothesis of power and its relationship to shaping conditions. During the presentation, participants heard how much of the focus had been on how to scale rather than the requirements needed to scale. The group discussed five core elements including leaders, stakeholders, and audience; information and insights; agents and mindsets; funders and resources; and – linked to this all – equity factors. All elements must be addressed to create conditions for scale. There is a need to reconceptualize power, so it is more accessible to more people, participants heard. The final group to present discussed the shared values and learnings which had emerged during the program. This group, which featured two participants, created an early draft of a potential Salzburg Statement, outlining a call to action. This document will be shared with other participants for their critique and feedback and will be worked on outside of the program. Participants were reminded that the health of the world and the health of children were intrinsically linked, and this Statement could be a way to bring others on board with their ideas and recommendations. As the discussion came to a close, participants were reminded of a quote by Astrid Lindgren to serve as inspiration: “I have never tried that before, so I think I should definitely be able to do that.” Participants will continue to work on their ideas outside of Salzburg and move toward disseminating their reflections to a wider audience, including key stakeholders. The program Healthy Children, Healthy Weight is part of Salzburg Global's multi-year series Health and Health Care Innovation. This year’s program is being held in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
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Stacy Baird - Europe’s Privacy Law - A Barrier to Artificial Intelligence or an Enabler?
Stacy Baird - Europe’s Privacy Law - A Barrier to Artificial Intelligence or an Enabler?
Stacy Baird 
This article is part of the series, the Salzburg Questions for Corporate Governance by the Salzburg Global Corporate Governance Forum Join in the discussion on LinkedIn Companies across the globe are dealing with the impact of Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), as it has extraterritorial legal reach, revising privacy policies and practices (such as those annoying pop-ups about using cookies on many website, a notice required by GDPR). One of the topics of the work we were doing in Salzburg was whether boards needed to have expertise to address the use of AI in the company’s business processes and possibly, products and services. A question boards must consider is the implication of GDPR with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) or Machine Learning (ML). GDPR carries severe penalties, and significant privacy issues tend to carry high reputational cost. With the heightened concerns around AI, ML and privacy, there will be brighter lights shining on issues, when they arise. As your company moves into the use of these new technologies, are you prepared? Is your board? With GDPR in effect just over six months, it is too early to know the impact – good or bad. Do you see GDPR as an impediment or an enabler of AI and ML for your company? Are there legal frameworks you can imagine or are aware of that may be a better approach? Is your company weighing these issues? The more data processed by AI or ML system, the better and more accurate the technology is able to complete its tasks. When that data is personally identifying of individuals, questions come to the fore regarding privacy. There are also privacy concerns regarding the outputs of the AI or ML system that paints a portrait of an individual that may reveal personal attributes that the individual may prefer remain private. Sometimes, indeed, data may not be personally identifying, but could be compared with data that are, with the result of identifying an individual. The European Court of Justice has already held where this is “likely reasonably,” the former data moves into the class of data protected by the Data Protection Directive, the predecessor to the GDPR. In Europe, the GDPR, in part, addresses these issues directly, stating in Article 9: “Processing of personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, or trade union membership, and the processing of genetic data, biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person, data concerning health or data concerning a natural person’s sex life or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.” The GDPR requires consent of a data subject (i.e. the person whose data is being processed) be freely given, specific and informed, and unambiguous – and by a clear affirmative act, such as a writing or speaking. “Specific and informed” means that consent is granted only for that particular purpose for which the consent is being sought, and does not extend to other (e.g., new) purposes. Further, consent can be withdrawn at any time and the individual has a right to have the data deleted (i.e., the right to be forgotten).  An alternative to obtaining consent is to anonymize, de-identify or pseudonymize the data, which allows a data processor to use the data for purposes beyond which consent was obtained. However, the effectiveness of anonymization is only as good as the extent to which the anonymization is irreversible. As the Information Commissioner’s Office of the UK points out, it may not be possible to establish with absolute certainty a particular dataset is irreversible, especially when taken together with other data that may exist elsewhere. GDPR Article 5 sets out “principles relating to processing of personal data” including “lawfulness, fairness and transparency; purpose limitation; data minimization; accuracy; storage limitation; integrity and confidentiality; and accountability.” Some of the principles may be contrary to the use of AI and ML, which must first collect as much data as possible, and then analyze the data after collection (the “learning” process). This process makes complying with the purpose limitation and data minimization principles challenging. Article 22 protects data subjects from decisions based solely on “automated individual decision-making, including profiling” which produce legal effects or similarly significantly affects the data subject. The requirement can be overcome if the data subject gives explicit consent. As well, the restriction addresses decisions based solely on automated processing. Therefore, for decisions such as applications for credit, loans, health insurance, or in the case of job interviews, performance appraisals, school admissions, or court ordered incarceration, the automation can (and many would say should) be used to inform a human decision, not supplant it. The use of an AI and ML for “decision-making including profiling” must also be “explainable” to the data subject. But it is an open question as to the extent of the explainability – and to what degree the data subject must understand. Barriers to understanding an algorithm include the technical literacy of the data-subject individual and a mismatch between the mathematical optimization in high-dimensionality characteristic of machine learning (i.e., conditional probabilities generated by ML) and the demands of human-scale reasoning and styles of interpretation (i.e., human understanding of causality). There are competing views on whether the provisions of GDPR enable or are barriers to AI and ML. For example, does the GDPR right to withdraw consent weigh in the decision of a company to use the data? It may be a challenge to delete data in widely federated datasets, and doing so diminishes the “learning” based on the data. With each new use for data, the company is required to go back to get consent. Is that alone an impediment? With the growing range of devices collecting data (i.e., Internet of Things), will it be possible to get specific and informed consent as a practical matter? In contrast to those raising concerns, Jeff Bullwinkel at Microsoft has written that the GDPR framework strikes the right balance between protecting privacy and enabling the use of AI – provided the law is interpreted reasonably. What is your view? How is your company weighing these issues? Do you see the GDPR as an enabler? Blocker? Do you know enough about the GDPR to make informed decisions? Does the rest of your board know enough? Given the potential liabilities and risks to the company, do you think it should? Have an opinion?  We encourage readers to share your comments by joining in the discussion on LinkedIn Stacy Baird is a Salzburg Global Fellow and consulting director at the Singapore-based consulting firm TRPC. His expertise lies in law and advising businesses and governments on information technology, privacy, data protection, cloud computing, and intellectual property (IP) public policy matters. Stacy also serves as executive director of the U.S.-China Clean Energy Forum Intellectual Property Program, where he helps address bilateral technology transfer and IP issues in the context of clean energy research and commercialization. Previously, Stacy served as Senior Policy Advisor to U.S. Senator Maria Cantwell, including work on the U.S. Patriot Act, and advisor to U.S. Congressman Howard Berman on issues of first impression related to the then-nascent internet and the mapping of the human genome. Prior to law, Stacy worked as music recording engineer with clients including Madonna, Stevie Nicks, Elvis Costello, Brian Eno, and Francis Coppola. He held appointments as Visiting Scholar at the University of Southern California College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and Visiting Fellow at the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law. Stacy has a J.D. from Pace University and a B.A. in radio and television communications from San Francisco State University.  The Salzburg Questions for Corporate Governance is an online discussion series introduced and led by Fellows of the Salzburg Global Corporate Governance Forum. The articles and comments represent opinions of the authors and commenters, and do not necessarily represent the views of their corporations or institutions, nor of Salzburg Global Seminar. Readers are welcome to address any questions about this series to Forum Director, Charles E. Ehrlich: cehrlich@salzburgglobal.org To receive a notification of when the next article is published, follow Salzburg Global Seminar on LinkedIn or sign up for email notifications here: www.salzburgglobal.org/go/corpgov/newsletter
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Hot Topic - Fellows Discuss Main Take-Aways from Salzburg
Salzburg Global Fellows share their views during Healthy Children, Healthy Weight
Hot Topic - Fellows Discuss Main Take-Aways from Salzburg
Anna Rawe 
A select number of Fellows at Healthy Children, Healthy Weight were asked: "What is your main take-away from this week's program?" We have published their answers below. "The power of the collective wisdom and thinking from diverse perspectives, and that it doesn’t matter where you are… in the world, the need to narrow things down, to focus, because we went wide… different nationalities or countries perspectives, that same thing happens. You kind of go off track to get back on track… and a commitment to stay in contact and keep moving.” Michelle Palmer, Australia Director of Partnerships at the New Zealand Department of Conservation "For me, it’s just how do we continue to break down silos between education and health? ... How do I continue to work with health practitioners and other individuals? ... How can we have the education practitioners come together to look at a holistic way of supporting children and families? How do we continue to weave in families into our school model that doesn’t keep them so isolated [and] on the outside… in a way that gives them more agency and voice?” Dominique Lee, USA Founder and Executive Director of Building Responsible Intelligent Creative Kids "I think it's really the collective sense of unity amongst policymakers [and] professionals [plus] commonalities we’ve all found in our own work, both in terms of problems but also in solutions [and] communities as well. I think that’s been really surprising... particular highlights, I think there’s been a sense of action and a sense of agency that we don’t necessarily need to call on other people or we shouldn’t be asking for agencies to do things. We should be taking it on within ourselves...” Matt Creamer, UK Senior Policy Officer at the Greater London Authority “I’ve been taken aback by the ways that power has shown up in the conversation… the ways in which it shapes people’s access to healthy food and to opportunities that would enable them to have an equitable start at life. I’ve just had a renewed appreciation for the role, and the purpose of power in shaping child outcomes and that’s… more on the public health side, but it’s less clinical than often our discourses around health tends to be.” Sebabatso Manoeli, South Africa Director of Innovation for the All Children on Track by Grade Four Portfolio at the DG Murray Trust “I think one of the main takeaways is that across different countries there are a lot of commonalities about the ways in which organizations and leaders are trying to improve the status of children and families. However, you know, context really matters and understanding the complexities of opportunities and challenges is really important... without that knowledge, you most likely will not thrive… [there were] so many diverse people coming from different perspectives but still looking at different strategies in a similar way. There is a lot of values-based leadership here focused on the fundamentals of understanding and valuing the voices of families in their work.” Marjorie Sims, USA Managing Director of Ascend at the Aspen Institute The program Healthy Children, Healthy Weight is part of Salzburg Global's multi-year series Health and Health Care Innovation. This year’s program is being held in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
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Knowledge Cafe - Ideas Supporting Children's Health
Photo by Jaredd Craig on Unsplash
Knowledge Cafe - Ideas Supporting Children's Health
Anna Rawe 
During Healthy Children, Healthy Weight, participants took part in a knowledge cafe with several stations showcasing projects supporting children's health. Participants moved every 30 minutes among stations. Each table had a facilitator who gave a brief impulse talk on the topic and then led the discussion. We spoke with each facilitator to garner what their take-aways were. “The thing that particularly came out… was the relational nature of the work we do and the significance of - when you build a collaboration - how you need to be thinking long term about how you can establish relationships and how you can keep working on those relationships during the life course of whatever your collaboration is doing… disseminating knowledge was another theme that came out… I was trying to emphasize the need for the whole of community responses and the best way to do that is effectively design, run and then evaluate collaborations.” Penny Dakin, Australia Acting CEO of the Australian Research Alliance for Children & Youth (ARACY) “I heard different perspectives - how communication was strategic in the work of different kinds of organizations or governments… there is a path to really use communication especially in non-profits and government in a way that it can really help. For example, the programmatic area or the development of public policy…. Normally, what you see is the communication helping the programmatic area… but in the foundation I have been working in [both of] the two [areas] became programmatic - they work together, exchanging knowledge and information.” Eduardo de Queiroz, Brazil Former CEO of the Fundação Maria Cecilia Souto Vidigal “Designing policies around data was the main theme… there are other information [sources] like polling behavior of people, and usage of transport, if more people use public transport, so it’s basically behavioral data that can also get integrated into the epidemiological data, combining both how can we align our policies with the targets we keep for ourselves... [and] how do we learn on the ground then take it back to the government to negotiate for certain changes that we would like in policies or targets…” Shalini Rudra, India Consultant for TATA Trusts “I think [what I wanted to get across was] the importance of building trust with children and helping them do that for themselves was a really important message, that they can do so given an enabling environment… our work is about growing that capability because once they’ve got it, then can then share it with others, and Kitbag is there just to get you started.” Margaret Hannah, UK IFF Kitbag Lead and Director of Health Programmes “The things that we’re discussing in terms of the health and wellbeing of children, [I wanted to convey] that it really does filter down through very many aspects of the way we create and shape our cities, and that relates to programs and policies but also in terms of the actual physical environment that we create. Very rarely when we’re designing cities do we actually think about what effect the planning of the city will have on a child.” Natalia Krysiak, Australia Architect “We talked about the country strategies and how it’s a lot of top bottom approaches but a bottom to top approach of what the policy should actually be. I think that then there were a lot of questions the participants asked like, ‘How is it possible?’ Then we talked about happiness: how do you measure? Then we went onto the indicators… the Gross National Happiness Survey that is done every four years, and how the finding from there, the analysis from there, actually feeds into the country program which eventually becomes the five-year plan… there is continuity. It’s a long-term goal, the whole country of Bhutan actually has one goal, and that is achieving Gross National Happiness” Dorji Ohm, Bhutan Executive Director of the Bhutan Youth Development Fund The program Healthy Children, Healthy Weight is part of Salzburg Global's multi-year series Health and Health Care Innovation. This year’s program is being held in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
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Utilizing Communications, Social Media, and Peer Group Initiatives
Photo by Jason Rosewell on Unsplash
Utilizing Communications, Social Media, and Peer Group Initiatives
Oscar Tollast 
Our voices matter. The use of communications, social media, and peer group initiatives can help amplify our messages and enact change. During Healthy Children, Healthy Weight, participants considered how these practices could best support child health and wellbeing and help establish a shared value for all children. Sometimes, language can be complex and difficult to understand. Organizations have to consider how to put across concepts - particularly those affecting children’s health and wellbeing - in a manner which can be appreciated by both children and adults. Sesame Workshop is the nonprofit organization behind Sesame Street, the hit American educational children’s television series. Since 1969, the show has educated millions of children across the planet through live action, comedy, animation, and the use of muppets. Grandparents, parents, and children, in some cases, have all shared the experience. However, there’s a lot more to the organization than what’s on television. In the United States, Sesame Street in Communities is focusing on Healthy Bodies, Healthy Minds; ABC’s and 123’s; and difficult times and tough talks. It’s working with partners in eight states, sharing free tools, and collaborating with local community efforts. Sesame Workshop is also working with military families and children with autism. The Workshop focuses on synthesizing, visualizing, and strategizing. This strategy involves creative co-modeling and scaffolding across all platforms. Any program it has must have three messages. When approaching obesity, the Workshop looked at the circle of care around children - those who influence a child’s behavior. Staff recognized framing the conversation around “obesity” was not positive. Instead, it used the much-loved Cookie Monster to demonstrate a concept called “sometime and anytime foods.” Participants were recommended to communicate in a synthesized way and consider how they could make their tagline visible across multiple platforms. From a different speaker, participants heard when devising cross-sector approaches that improve the wellbeing of young people, they had to consider who their audience was and the best way to put their message out there. The speaker discussed how he and his organization faired better once they began targeting groups instead of individuals. They implemented co-design projects that used youth culture as a segmentation tool to reach and engage young people who were ambivalent to mainstream health messages. One unsuccessful co-designed approach, however, involved creating an app to provide relevant information.  It became apparent that the app wasn’t being used by the target audience, as this audience didn’t have enough storage space on their phones for it. Instead, this audience prioritized other apps. In some cases, it might be better to use existing channels of communication than creating new ones, participants learned. As the conversation came to a close, participants reflected on a case study where children in kindergarten were encouraged to be more active. The developers of the program worked closely with kindergarten teachers and parents to put this message across. This approach was an example of community intervention. Previously, attempts had been made to tackle obesity through therapy, but this proved to be unsuccessful. This newly-devised program was able to reach the majority of five- to six-year-olds in the region with modules on topics such as eating behavior and physical activity. Topics would be introduced into the curriculum at kindergarten for six months. The program used a wide range of channels to put their messages across, including traditional routes such as written materials, emails, and newsletters. Other avenues, however, were also explored, such as a website which contained a forum for parents to access and exchange information. By establishing a presence on Facebook, people were also encouraged to interact and engage with the content through competitions. The program Healthy Children, Healthy Weight is part of Salzburg Global's multi-year series Health and Health Care Innovation. This year’s program is being held in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
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