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Genocide Prevention

Salzburg Global President's Report 2018
Salzburg Global President's Report 2018
Louise Hallman 
“How does a relatively small but influential NGO help shape a better world? That is the question Salzburg Global Seminar set out to answer as we entered our 70th anniversary year,” explains Salzburg Global President & CEO, Stephen L. Salyer in this year’s edition of the Salzburg Global Chronicle.  Founded in 1947, Salzburg Global Seminar has the mission to challenge current and future leaders to shape a better world. Our multi-year program series aim to bridge divides, expand collaboration and transform systems.  Features This year’s edition of the Salzburg Global Chronicle puts forth this renewed mission and strategic framework of the 70-year-old organization through a series of features and mini profiles of our Fellows and their projects. A Positive Space in a Polarizing World From Students to Statesmen Combined Efforts, Maximum Effect  From Ideas to Impact Radical Reinvention From Local to Global Campaign The Chronicle also announced the launch of Salzburg Global’s largest-ever fundraising campaign. Inspiring Leadership: The Campaign for Salzburg Global Seminar will seek to raise $18 million over the next three years to expand our scholarship program, invest in developing innovative solutions to complex problems and secure this organization and our historic home of Schloss Leopoldskron for generations to come.  “Campaigns are about vision. They support critical, compelling and transformational priorities,” states Salyer. “The Campaign Inspiring Leadership  — gift by gift, investment by investment — will empower people, policies, and placemaking that can transform the world.”  For the Love of Humankind From Scholarships to Schloss Renovations Yearbook Now in its fifth year, this year’s Chronicle is for the first time accompanied by a “Yearbook.” As Clare Shine, Salzburg Global Vice President and Chief Program Officer explains: “Our 2017 Yearbook draws these rich strands together. It provides an overview of our activities and partnerships in Salzburg and around the world, highlighting our multi-year program goals and the concrete outcomes driving short and longer-term impact. We wish you good reading and look forward to working with you in the future.” Download the Yearbook (PDF) You can read all the stories and download both sections of the 2018 President’s Report on the dedicated webpage: www.SalzburgGlobal.org/chronicle/2018 
 
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Combating Extremism and Promoting Pluralism
Combating Extremism and Promoting Pluralism
Salzburg Global Seminar 
Xenophobia, racism, and violent extremism are tearing at the fabric of societies across the globe. Although contexts and specifics differ, many shared human values do not: the wish to live in peace and security, and to ensure a positive future for the next generation. At the same time, where atrocities have occurred there is a need to commemorate victims and to confront perpetrators without perpetuating a cycle of violence or creating a climate overwhelmed by vengeance. Faced with a rise in violent extremism, policymakers are under pressure to invest in prevention and to show that it works. Structured efforts to reduce extremist mindsets and behaviors have existed for some time, but evidence of effectiveness is often not widely known or utilized. Many interventions require considerable time to effect change, making rigorous measurement of their success over the long-term resource-intensive with sustained political will around an often-unpopular topic. What works? How do we know? And will it work in different geographic, cultural, and political contexts? These were the questions at the front mind for the educators, practitioners and museum curators invited to take part in a new phase of Salzburg Global Seminar’s Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention multi-year program series as they devised strategies to support cultures of prevention, with a specific focus on Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia.  Funded by the United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the two-year project saw Fellows collaborate within and across countries to develop locally-driven, culturally-sensitive and -specific responses to combat extremism and promote pluralism in the five focus countries: Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan, Rwanda, and South Africa. The new report, Combating Extremism and Promoting Pluralism, presents the findings of the project from August 2016 to March 2018, starting with a workshop at Schloss Leopoldskron, culminating in several successful pilot projects that are now being scaled-up across their regions, and generating a series of concrete recommendations for others wishing to implement their own projects to combat extremism and promote pluralism. Interviews with several Fellows are also included. Pilot Projects Fellows from Rwanda and South Africa collaborated in launching the Change Makers Program, a leadership program for high school students. Using case studies on the Rwandan genocide, South African apartheid and the Holocaust, students develop critical thinking skills and are empowered to be agents of positive change.  In Egypt, educators at the American University of Cairo (AUC) established the Civic Peace Education Initiative. This strives to integrate community-based learning, intergenerational dialogue and storytelling into the curriculum and prompts students and faculty to think about societal divides and adopt values of global citizenship. Similarly, Fellows at the International University of Rabat in Morocco developed a graduate degree program in Conflict Resolution and Peace Governance.  In Pakistan, as part of its mission to protect youth against extremist recruitment efforts, the Renaissance Foundation for Social Innovation, Pakistan (RESIP) used this funding to conduct a study on the effect of socio-religious identities in shaping university students’ behavior. Elsewhere in the country, Fellows at Kohat University launched a study circle to connect students across the country’s northwestern provinces.  “After the Holocaust, people have repeated the mantra ‘never again’ – but then mass atrocities keep happening,” explains Charles Ehrlich, Salzburg Global Program Director.  “In Salzburg, we’ve heard first-hand accounts of tragedies taking place right now afflicting the Rohingya and the Yazidis, among others. Many of our participants in this program have themselves witnessed or survived unspeakable horror. “As an institution based in Austria, a country which itself continues to have difficulty addressing its own Nazi legacy, Salzburg Global Seminar has an especially important role in working with our colleagues from countries across the world to both address their own difficult histories and, through grassroots action, to seek to create a future where these tragedies do not repeat. The network has grown organically – mostly consisting of Fellows from countries in the Global South – as a way to break the isolation, so they have the opportunity to share experiences and ideas and to learn from each other how to develop initiatives appropriate for the circumstances of their own countries.” All five of the pilot projects are now poised for expansion or replication over the course of 2018 and 2019. For its part, Salzburg Global intends to continue this series on Holocaust education and combating extremism through the convening of future sessions in Salzburg, as well as by supporting in-region gatherings of Fellows to aid in the execution of these initiatives. Download the Report
Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention is a multi-year program series held in partnership with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. It is funded by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, with further support from Ronald D. Abramson, the Future Fund of the Republic of Austria, The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation and the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung. 
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Ayub Ayubi - “I Had No Time for Thinking Independently”
Ayub Ayubi - “I Had No Time for Thinking Independently”
Helena Santos and Mirva Villa 
Today Ayub Ayubi is a Pakistani social activist dedicated to youth empowerment and to engaging college students from different cultural and religious backgrounds through the Renaissance Foundation for Social Innovation, Pakistan (RESIP). But this story could have been radically different if Ayubi had not attended college. Born and raised in a “religiously fanatic environment” as he describes it, Ayubi’s childhood was marked by hatred and extremist views on how to treat others who didn’t belong to the deobandi – a strict Sunni school of thought. “My time was divided 40% for school, 30% for madrassa and the rest of the time for my family. In this proportion I had no time for thinking independently or I was not allowed to go around freely with friends not of my culture. The parents belong to a deobandi sector and they didn’t want any friend outside that sector.” Gaining time to think and his own space is what Ayubi considers as the defining moment in his life. While in college he started to have contact with believers from other Muslim sects and it led him to challenge preconceived notions that were prevalent in his household, like how the Shias are the enemies of Islam. “At the college time I changed my circle of friends and that was the time I began to change. I improved myself and it was the initial point for me to de-radicalize myself and to have some freedom, for me to have some space for myself. That was the beginning of it and I really love that moment.” This passion and will to change his extremist ways propelled him to create a safe space for others to go through the same process he had. Hence RESIP was born. His main goal with RESIP, an organization he founded in 2011 and of which he now serves as its chairman, is to promote de-radicalization and preventing violent extremism in his country. With support from Salzburg Global Seminar, he is now also piloting another de-radicalization project, as part of the Salzburg Global Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention Program. RESIP started as an informal way for students to gather and have the opportunity to discuss their own views, and since 2011 it has helped 5000 young Pakistanis. Seven years later RESIP has two nationwide programs, one of which is Mashal-e-Rah. “Mashal-e-Rah is an on campus campaign for alternative engagement to stop the recruitment of extremist groups like ISIS/Daesh and many of these jihad groups [that] are actively working within the campus. We are trying with this campaign to provide young people a platform where they could share their voices, that could share their grievances against the state, against their own families, against the campus, anyone.” Issues such as gender equality, Islamic extremism and other religions are discussed by students who have different views so that they have a chance to develop empathy with the other person’s believes and values. Mashal-e-Rah is currently present in 25 campuses across Pakistan. “We are not judging them; we are giving them an option to speak up [...] We are trying to let them realize that violence is not an option and that you need to tolerate other people’s views.” Having a space to talk and confront different ideologies is exactly one of the things Ayubi cherishes the most about his time in Salzburg. In his opinion, global meetings are the key to think of the world without any constraints imposed by family, society, governments or media. “I would call it building empathy with the international community. That’s what we need at this stage. That’s one of the stepping stones toward peacebuilding and this is what I’m learning from here.” Ayub Ayubi is a Fellow of the Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention Program. This multi-year series is held in partnership with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and funded by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, with further support from Ronald D. Abramson, the Future Fund of the Republic of Austria, The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation and the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung. More information is available here: holocaust.salzburgglobal.org
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Salzburg Global Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention Program on the BBC World Service
Salzburg Global Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention Program on the BBC World Service
Bethany Bell, BBC World News 
On November 19, 2017, the BBC World Service featured Salzburg Global Fellows, Albert Lichtblau, Tali Nates and Freddy Mutanguha, and Salzburg Global Program Director Charles Ehrlich as they discussed with BBC Foreign Correspondent Bethany Bell the importance of teaching about the Holocaust in order to prevent future extremism. Presenter: The rise in violent extremism is one of the most troubling phenomena facing governments and communities in recent times but what actually works to prevent it? Well, this week Salzburg Global Seminar in Austria has brought together people from 20 different countries, including Rwanda, South Africa and Bangladesh, who are working to try and promote peace in troubled regions. The seminar asks how tools developed for educating people about the Holocaust can help counter extremism in societies today, as Bethany Bell now reports from Salzburg. Lichtblau: “Adolf Hitler was from Austria. He was born here. He grew up here and he moved to Bavaria then…” Bell: An unusual tour of Salzburg by the Austrian historian Albert Lichtblau. Rather than focusing on the city’s famous citizens like Mozart, this tour is about its Nazi history and the way the city remembers or tries not to remember its past. But this isn’t just a history lesson. The people on the tour are part of a group which is trying to find ways countering extremism today. Charles Ehrlich is from Salzburg Global Seminar. Ehrlich: The people who are here make a mix of activists, government officials, museum directors, civil society from countries in Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. They all have their own national tragedies or difficult atrocities or difficult histories that they need to come to grips with. And Holocaust education is so well developed that it has a set of tools that they can actually adapt to their own societies to be able to help them address their own problems in a way that both memorializes the past in a dignified way and remembers the victims of the atrocities, but also allows them to heal and move into the future. Bell: One of the projects to emerge from the group is the Change Makers Leadership Program, which aims to help high school students from South Africa and Rwanda counter extremism by confronting past atrocities. One of its leaders is Tali Nates from the Johannesburg Holocaust and Genocide Center. Nates: Our idea was to take three case studies: The Holocaust, the genocide in Rwanda and the apartheid in South Africa. But to add to that, issues of resilience and empathy and the kids, they would be treated as leaders. One of the most important components was to look at individual stories and the choices people made in those times. So not only talking about the perpetrators and victims but also bystanders, also rescuers, upstanders, in the case of Rwanda, the international community: where was the world? So really looking deeply into human behaving those times and choices the people – individuals and groups – made. And the feeling was with the kids was that “now we are empowered.” One of the students said, “the program allowed me to understand my power that I am an upstander. I can stand up and speak up.” Bell: Tali Nates, the daughter of a Holocaust survivor, works closely with Freddy Mutanguha, who lost his parents and siblings in the Rwandan Genocide in 1994. He said they wanted to work with teenagers because they were most at risk of being radicalized. Mutanguha: The young people, they are drawn into mass atrocities, into violence. So we decided to focus on them and help them to resist extremism. The genocide seems to be a past as history. But it’s really alive. Even today you can see the skulls, you can see the consequences. People really feel traumatized at some point. So we have to tell them, “Other people made wrong actions. How can you change it? How can you change Rwanda to be a very good story to tell instead of telling the story of genocide?” Presenter: Freddy Mutanguha ending that report by Bethany Bell. The Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention Program is a multi-year series held in partnership with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. It is funded by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, with further support from Ronald D. Abramson, the Future Fund of the Republic of Austria, The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation and the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung. More information is available here: holocaust.salzburgglobal.org
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Sarah AlNemr - “Being introduced to so many different perspectives and different terminologies... makes you think more about the world”
Sarah AlNemr - “Being introduced to so many different perspectives and different terminologies... makes you think more about the world”
Carly Sikina and Mirva Villa 
On one hand, media has the ability to reinforce fears and stereotypes, on the other hand it can also enable shared dialogue, which can help facilitate positive social change. AlNemr first came to Salzburg in the summer of 2017 for the three-week Salzburg Academy on Media and Global Change, a longrunning program of Salzburg Global Seminar that promotes media literacy and global citizenship. While attending the session, which was that year titled Voices Against Extremism: Media Responses to Global Populism, AlNemr and the other student participants created a multimedia “playbook” to facilitate cross-cultural conversations about populism and extremism. She described her experience as “amazing”, as she was able to meet people from around the world. Since attending the Academy, AlNemr says, “I am far more comfortable being here with a group of people that I’ve never met… Being introduced to so many different perspectives and different terminology, just a lot of different ideas, makes you think more about the world.” Based on her thoughtful contributions while attending the Academy, AlNemr was invited to return to Salzburg for a second time and bring her youth perspective to the Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention Program. AlNemr states that she wanted to attend the Program because of her desire to learn about the topic of extremism. “I’m really trying to understand a lot more about it [extremism] because it’s very vital to our existence. It’s not something that we talk about.” She continues, “it’s [important] for me to understand more about the world, to understand how things happen and why conflicts happen.” Although they were different, AlNemr identifies connections between the two sessions. She describes both as “experimental” and “very raw.” She sees the sessions as vital to dismantling current worldviews and systems as well as crucial components to understanding the importance of gaining “different perspectives on how things could be.” She now plans to incorporate her new insights from Salzburg into future filmmaking projects. She highlights the importance of examining “different contexts, having different cultures, having different histories, …and different explanations of one story, of one history,” and she believes that doing so, “really gives you a lot of perspective on how you can use that in film.” Sarah AlNemr is a Fellow of the Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention Program. This multi-year series is held in partnership with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and funded by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, with further support from Ronald D. Abramson, the Future Fund of the Republic of Austria, The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation and the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung. More information is available here: holocaust.salzburgglobal.org
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Obioma Uche - “If we can find ways to empower women, they will not fall prey to the ideology of those groups”
Obioma Uche - “If we can find ways to empower women, they will not fall prey to the ideology of those groups”
Carly Sikina and Mirva Villa 
Although she teaches petroleum chemistry at the American University of Nigeria, Uche is predominantly interested in the delivery of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education to students, particularly young girls. She believes this initiative can help solve local and regional problems. Moreover, she devotes her life to improving the educational infrastructure in Nigeria and supporting children’s education. “There have been a few bombings in Yola [in the east of Nigeria, near the Cameroonian border]. Fortunately for us, things have quietened down in the past year. But in Maiduguri, there’s a bombing every other day, and what has struck me over the past year is that these bombings have been carried out by women,” she explains. This realization of the increased participation of women in extremist groups, spurred Uche to become further involved in improving women’s education. Uche believes it is important to empower women, as extremist groups attempt to gain members by giving people hope and by convincing them the group’s beliefs are better than their own. “If we can find ways to empower women, they [will] not fall prey to the ideology of those groups.” This empowerment comes through education. “I think for many African countries, they do not understand that child and girl education is important.” Uche understands challenging this common ideology will not be easy. She believes that it is one thing to create a law but another thing to put it into practice. “The law is on the book, but is the will to enforce it there?” In addition to her teaching obligations, Uche is involved in a community scholarship fund. “[We] look for underprivileged children and we pay their tuition all the way through primary school, and for a select few, we also support them through secondary school.” She continues, “Now, that might not seem like much, but for a lot of families in the region, when you are struggling to actually feed your family, having to spend a few extra naira on educating your daughter does not seem like a workable solution.” In addition to supporting children throughout school, she explains the fund strives to improve the infrastructure in schools. “If you go to some of these local schools, you’ll find they are pretty much husks, really. There are no windows, ceiling is in bad repair. So one of the initiatives … this semester has been to refurbish the staff support rooms, give them a facelift, put in a new ceiling and also provide tools that would enable the teachers to put together their lesson plans.” When speaking about her time in Salzburg, Uche is very enthusiastic. “It’s been an eye-opening experience; I’ve learned quite a lot. I think it’s been interesting, being a scientist in a room of people in the arts, learning how they frame their discussions.” “It’s a very educational experience, and I have been able to make a network of colleagues that I think will enable me to do a much better job of trying to improve the situation of the girls that I currently work with.” Despite the obstacles, Uche remains hopeful. “Nigeria is a very patriarchal society and I feel that one of the ways in which I have been able to live a rather independent life for a woman in Nigeria is through education… And so I think, if I can at least be a part of having other women have access to that [same] opportunity, then that’s how we move Nigeria to a better place.” Obioma Uche is a Fellow of the Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention Program. This multi-year series is held in partnership with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and funded by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, with further support from Ronald D. Abramson, the Future Fund of the Republic of Austria, The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation and the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung. More information is available here: holocaust.salzburgglobal.org
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Arjimand Hussain Talib - Believing in a Future That is “Inclusive, Plural, and Not Extreme”
Arjimand Hussain Talib - Believing in a Future That is “Inclusive, Plural, and Not Extreme”
Mirva Villa 
Kashmir, divided under the control of India, Pakistan, and China, is one of the most militarized zones in the world. The ongoing conflict between India and Pakistan over the ownership of the prosperous region began with the violent partition of British India 70 years ago. The Kashmiri people are no strangers to power struggles – they have been under foreign rule for centuries, from the Afghans, Mughals in the 16th, Sikhs to the British in the 20th century. The lives of the people living in the area continue to be affected by the aftermath of the 1947 partition. Seventy years on, approximately one million armed forces man both sides of the line of control, in an area with a population of about 14 million people.  “Post 1990, because of a bloody armed struggle and the counter-insurgency, most of the ordinary Kashmiris were caught in the middle and life for them has been really very difficult since the last 28 years,” said Arjimand Hussain Talib. “Although Srinagar and New Delhi shared an uneasy political relationship ever since 1947, the advent of armed struggle in 1990 resulted in a whole new situation. Basic civil liberties got hampered to a great extent. Extra-constitutional laws were introduced, which affect people’s safety and dignity. So these are very difficult circumstances,” Talib said, adding that living in an environment of constant fear and uncertainty has taken a significant toll on the people’s psyche and mental health as well. Talib was brought up in Kashmir, during what he calls a “very difficult time.” In the 1990s, the region was in the midst of heightened armed conflict. Most parents at the time, Talib explains, chose to send their children abroad to receive their education. “Like many others, I was sent to South India,” Talib said. While trained as an engineer, Talib knew his passions lay elsewhere. “I had more leanings toward social sciences, but finally, I became an engineer.” He later went on to study water resource management and worked for international organizations such as World Bank’s ProVention Consortium, UNESCO, Plan International, Oxfam and ActionAid. The work took him to 16 different countries (including Austria, where he participated in a Salzburg Global Seminar program – The Politics of Water: Addressing Fresh Water Scarcity - in 2002) and many years away from Kashmir, but now, Talib is planning to return to help his home region. “At this point in time,” he said, “I had two options: to continue my international career, working outside of Kashmir, or going back and doing something for Kashmir.” As Kashmir is yet again living through a turbulent period of unrest, Talib has returned to Kashmir to launch a new newspaper - the Ziraat Times. The paper has been running since October 2017, and it is the first print publication focused solely on Kashmir’s agricultural business community – which makes up a large portion of the local economy. While other papers mostly report on the ongoing struggles of the region, the Ziraat Times aims to bring something new to the public conversation by focusing on the local economies of Jammu and Kashmir – the Indian-administered part of the region – and broader issues that impact the area, such as climate change, a significant youth population, entrepreneurship and technology and innovation. This work is part of an effort on Talib’s part to help optimize productivity in the primary economy of Kashmir and create job opportunities for youth across the supply chain, considering dwindling job opportunities for the youth. This is something he spoke about at Schloss Leopoldskron during the November 2017 Salzburg Global program, Learning from the Past: Sharing Experiences across Borders to Combat Extremism. Talib insists “Kashmir is a very resilient nation.” Despite its decades-long conflict, Talib said Kashmir retains its long-held ethos of compassion and empathy. He indicates Kashmir’s multi-cultural and multi-ethnic moorings, meanwhile, remain mostly unaffected. According to Talib, the fertile lands have ensured the fruit-growing region enjoys economic prosperity – but what is needed now is political stability, a solution to the conflict and peace. After a long career in international development, Talib hopes his new role as a newspaper editor will help create job opportunities and hope for Kashmir’s young people. “I’ve seen the perils and pain of the Arab Spring, and what it did to countries like Libya and Syria, and I’m affected by that…. I don’t want Kashmir to face a similar situation,” said Talib. “This [idea of] going back [home] is guided by that desire of contributing something small in making sure that our youth have a hope in a better.” International collaboration gives participants in the Salzburg Global Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention program the opportunity to learn from other people’s experiences on tackling local issues of extremism and consider adapting tried-and-tested strategies in their own contexts and communities. Hearing Rwandan participants share how their country worked through the aftermath of the 1994 genocide, where an estimated 800,000 Tutsi Rwandans were killed by their Hutu compatriots in the space of 100 days, was especially valuable for Talib. Talib said, “Much of the world is currently facing this challenge of extremism. Extremist right-wing parties and ideologies are taking center-stage almost everywhere.” Talib values the moral support offered by the network of like-minded people. He said, “The biggest thing is that we come to know in these events there are people who believe in a future which is inclusive, which is plural, which is respectful of diversity and is not extreme. And that motivates you, and that gives you an opportunity to form linkages, to think of a future where you would have many other people working for a better tomorrow in their own regions.” Arjimand Hussain Talib is a Fellow of the Holocaust Education and Genocide Prevention program. This multi-year series is held in partnership with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and funded by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, with further support from Ronald D. Abramson, the Future Fund of the Republic of Austria, The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation and the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung. More information is available here: holocaust.salzburgglobal.org
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