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Naina Subberwal Batra – “The World Is Becoming a Much More Borderless Place”
Naina Subberwal Batra – “The World Is Becoming a Much More Borderless Place”
Lucy Browett and Anna Rawe 
Naina Subberwal Batra is the CEO and chairperson of AVPN. Her leadership has grown the AVPN membership by 254% and elevated the organization into a truly regional force for good. She is a Salzburg Global Fellow, having participated in New Horizons in Social Investment: Global Exchange for Action and Impact, part of the long-running series on Philanthropy and Social Investment. Salzburg Global spoke with Batra to discuss AVPN, philanthropy in Asia and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This Q&A has been edited for length and clarity. Salzburg Global: Could you start off by introducing yourself and AVPN? Naina Subberwal Batra: I am the CEO and chairperson of AVPN. AVPN is a membership platform for funders and resource providers. We have 520 members from 32 countries and our members range from foundations, family offices, corporates, intermediaries, impact funds, government[s], [and] universities. Anyone who deploys capital, whether that’s financial, human or intellectual capital to the social sector in Asia is qualified to be a member of AVPN.   SG: Why do you think it’s so important to have these partnerships and all these relationships between different institutions? NSB: If you look at the scale of social problems - and Salzburg Global is very focused on the SDGs - if we were truly to achieve the SDGs by 2030, we need to deploy capital across the spectrum. If we only look at philanthropic capital, it’s only in the many millions or maybe a few billions. In order to achieve the SDGs, we need trillions of dollars, and that will only happen if you have partnerships, if you have coalitions and if you bring different groups and stakeholders together, which is why I think platforms like AVPN are crucial and environments provided by organizations like Salzburg Global that bring people together are very important. SG: What kind of things do you think are important for a good partnership? Do you have an example of something that’s worked well or something that’s come to fruition through AVPN? NSB: So I think for partnerships, mutual trust, aligned expectations, and constant communication are very important. A good example is the partnership that Salzburg Global and AVPN have formed. It started out by an initial exploration of [a] common interest. The moment we agreed that we had some synergies, it led to a lot of open communication between our teams, the building of trust, and then finally executing it in the form of this program. SG: Do you think maybe it’s good for Asia to have collaborations with cross-continental organizations and is that why you brought people from different areas around the world to this program? NSB: I think global co-operation and collaboration and sharing is very important. There are lessons that we’ve learned. And I’m not saying that the sector is more advanced that it is in the south, it’s just there have been different experiences in the north than there have been in the south. There can be sharing of these experiences and then tweaking based on our own regional needs and our regional make-up. The tweaking of those experiences can really help. Also, what we realize increasingly, the world is becoming a much more borderless place. People are moving far more than any other generations before them, and therefore we have a lot of Asian diaspora[s] that live in the US, that live in Europe that are interested in giving back to Asia. It’s only when we understand each other and we understand the different organizations working across geography are we able to make those connections happen. SG: How do you think AVPN or any of its member partnerships are innovative or maybe have the organizational capacity for innovation? NSB: I think innovation, especially in Asia, is across the board. I think we Asians tend to take a little bit of time to learn new things, but the moment we do, we replicate and innovate at the speed of light. Philanthropy is no different than any other sector where that has happened. What we find is that, if you look at philanthropy and how it’s developed or is developing in Asia, we’re finding a lot more collaborations that are happening at a faster speed than they did in the US or in Europe. Where it’s different in Asia is that there’s much more tendency to form multi-stakeholder groups. So you’d find a corporate coming together with a foundation, coming together with government to actually collaborate on a project. It’s much rarer to see that with more established foundations in the West. SG: How has the history of philanthropy in Asia changed over the years you’ve been working in it? NSB: I think philanthropy in Asia has really changed. Philanthropy in Asia has been around for eons, right? We’ve always given to temples, to churches, to religious giving, but now what I find is that there’s a lot more institutional giving. In the last five years, I find that millennials are much more excited about giving, and there is now a sort of spectrum of giving. So it’s no longer just grant-making through philanthropy, but it’s actually looking at grant-making, looking at debt and looking at equity. So how to do we bring in innovative financial structures to our giving? SG: What talent management approaches do you think are necessary to further the Sustainable Development Goals? NSB: I think talent management is crucial. We don’t have enough of it in the philanthropy sector, and definitely not much in Asia, which is why AVPN has launched an academy to actually help develop the human capital that is needed to grow this sector, whether it be entry level positions or it be people who are looking at a mid-career change. So how can we equip them with knowledge and secondly, and more importantly, with experiences of the sector so that they can look at building a career in this sector, but also looking at finding jobs that can match their expertise? The program, New Horizons in Social Investment: Global Exchange for Action and Impact is part of Salzburg Global Seminar's multi-year series Philanthropy and Social Investment. This program was held in partnership with the Asian Venture Philanthropy Network, a network committed to building a vibrant and high impact social investment community across Asia.
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Manjeet Kripalani - "Our Arrival Has Changed the Dynamics in the Think Tank World"
Manjeet Kripalani, pictured, is the co-founder of Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relations (Photo: Gateway House)
Manjeet Kripalani - "Our Arrival Has Changed the Dynamics in the Think Tank World"
Oscar Tollast 
Manjeet Kripalani is the co-founder of Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relations. She is also a Salzburg Global Fellow, having attended Mass Media in the Age of Globalization in October, 2000. At this point in her career, she was the bureau chief for Business Week magazine in Mumbai. Kripalini recently spoke with Salzburg Global to discuss the role of Gateway House, its successes, its challenges, and where its focus lies in the immediate future. SG: Manjeet, thank you for taking the time to talk with Salzburg Global. To begin, can you tell us about Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relations, and the purpose behind it? MK: We are a foreign policy think tank in Mumbai, established to engage India’s leading corporations and individuals in debate and scholarship on India’s foreign policy and the nation’s role in global affairs. We are membership-based, independent, non-partisan and not-for-profit. We are located in Mumbai for several reasons, to get a non-Delhi, non-landlocked perspective of India but also because Mumbai is India’s most international, cosmopolitan city, one with historical links to the outside world. Mumbai is also at the heart of the changing international matrix – globalization, terrorism, energy, environment, innovation, technology, nation-building, and the new geoeconomics. And it is home to the country’s leaders – corporate, financial, media, artistic and technological. Mumbai is, as our logo and brand depicts the gateway to India and our face to the world. SG: As I understand it, you were inspired to establish Gateway House during your time as an Edward R. Murrow Press Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. What was it, in particular, that gave you that lightbulb moment? MK: Three reasons: 1. The similarities between Mumbai and New York are obvious and were made even more apparent when I was at CFR. The pragmatic impact of business on America’s foreign policy is clear; it makes that country’s positioning and diplomacy more compelling and closer to the reality of people’s lives. 2. The participation of business, as members, of CFR, whether in meetings and discussions, in providing input on papers, in fund-raising and board positions, was active and impressive. I thought then – we can easily have a similar institution, a home for India’s internationalists, in Mumbai. As a business journalist who worked in both New York and Mumbai, I knew this was possible, and would be welcomed in India. 3. The time was right – India was changing thanks to the outsourcing of software, it was becoming a global participant, and it was the software business that was leading our diplomacy at that moment. The actual moment when we became a reality for the public was [on] the 26th November 2008 [after the] attacks on Mumbai. No one knew who these attackers were, and the need for a think tank in Mumbai, which could study international affairs both economically and security-wise, was felt. Our funding came in right after this. SG: What, in your opinion, are some of the success stories Gateway House can recount? MK: There are several: 1. We are now nine years old, and still, the only major non-Delhi think tank in India, one which is independent, private and membership based. Our model is unique, and I don’t think easily replicable. 2. Our arrival has changed the dynamics in the think tank world, injecting a dose of cordiality into what is a fiercely competitive think tank landscape in India. 3. Because we are in Mumbai, our study area is geoeconomics and international finance, multilateral engagements – studies that have not been a focus in India. We parley that into global geoeconomic conferences and a deep study into the G20 financial agenda. We study with maritime affairs, given Mumbai’s coastal position, and data security, so important for India’s IT and other businesses. 4. We are the only think tank in India that creates visual research – maps and infographics, usually the preserve of consultants. It has given us the edge in our industry, and globally.   5. We are perhaps the only think tank in the world founded by two women – one diplomat, one business journalist. We don’t play this up or parley it well enough in today’s politically correct world because we ourselves don’t feel any different from other entrepreneurs. But the input we receive from others is that the workplace is more congenial and that the special talents of individuals are nurtured and enabled to blossom. SG: What are some of the challenges you've faced since establishing Gateway House? With hindsight, are there things that you would have done differently? MK: Primarily, being founded by two women means that male-led institutional bastions do not treat women-led institutions with the same seriousness that they do the men’s club. We live with it, but we hope that soon it will change in India. I don’t think we would do anything differently. There isn’t much recognition of the work and necessity of a think tank in Mumbai, for Mumbai. But as India is rapidly globalizing, we find that the knowledge of world affairs is gaining currency – and that’s where we come in. SG: There are evidently a wide number of foreign policy issues to tackle. What's one area where more focus is required? MK: A greater study of finance, of economics, of business, of media, of maritime affairs, of the blue economy, of technology. And less of a western lens in viewing the world. We need to build a body of literature and analysis, case studies, on India and its foreign policy. SG: You've had an illustrious career. You've had an extensive career in journalism and gained significant experience in politics. In your current role, do you feel as if those experiences help you and provide you with an advantage in your work? MK: No question that it does. A reporter is a researcher, a questioner, a tracker, following a quest that is persevering and who never gives up until the truth is found. A think tank does that and more – it develops an analysis of the same, and makes recommendations on policy-making. Also writing is essential to communication. It is a skill, an art, a passion for me. Our website and papers do well because we do not write in dry, academic, jargon; we write in simple, clear language, so that ordinary people, young people – and in India, less literate people – can understand even the nuances of foreign policy. SG: You attended a program of Salzburg Global Seminar called Mass Media in the Age of Globalization. What can you remember about this program? Did it have an impact on you in any shape? MK: This was very long ago, but I do remember that it brought together groups of people from different parts of the world and from different areas of expertise and experience, all of whom were put together to bring forth a common solution. That has stayed with me as the defining characteristic of Salzburg. It taught me a lot. #s3gt_translate_tooltip_mini { display: none !important; }
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Salzburg Global Fellow Shahidul Alam Profiled for TIME Magazine’s “Person of the Year” Feature
Shahidul Alam speaking at Salzburg Global Seminar
Salzburg Global Fellow Shahidul Alam Profiled for TIME Magazine’s “Person of the Year” Feature
Oscar Tollast 
TIME magazine has profiled Salzburg Global Fellow Shahidul Alam as part of its “Person of the Year” feature. The Bangladeshi photographer and activist is a part of TIME magazine’s spotlight on “the Guardians” and the “War on Truth” – this year’s winner. The Person of the Year feature profiles a person, group, idea, or object that has done the most to influence the events of the year. The magazine honored several journalists, including Jamal Khashoggi, Capital Gazette staffers, Maria Ressa, Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo. It also highlighted numerous examples of journalists who have been attacked in the course of their work, including Alam. Karl Vick, writing for TIME, said, “In 2018, journalists took note of what people said, and of what people did. When those two things differed, they took note of that too. The year brought no great change in what they do or how they do it. What changed was how much it matters.” Earlier this year, Alam was jailed for more than 100 days in response to statements he made during student-led mass protests in Dhaka. Speaking with TIME, Alam said, “The world over, journalism is under threat. Whether you’re a teacher, a dancer, a painter, or a journalist, each one of us needs to be constantly fighting.” In August, Salzburg Global expressed its concern for the welfare of Alam and helped spread information about his situation with the wider Fellowship. Last month, Alam was granted bail by Bangladesh’s high court. He had previously applied for bail four times. Alam still faces up to 14 years in prison on charges of spreading propaganda against the government under the Bangladeshi’s International Communication and Technology Act (ICT), according to TIME. Despite this possibility, Alam remains undaunted and plans to cover elections in Bangladesh this month. Alam has previously attended two Salzburg Global programs. In 2013, he joined Salzburg Global as a faculty member for Power in Whose Palm? The Digital Democratization of Photography. In 2016, meanwhile, he was a participant at Beyond Green: The Arts as a Catalyst for Sustainability. At both programs, he shared his photography and activism with Fellows from around the world.
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Stacy Baird - Europe’s Privacy Law - A Barrier to Artificial Intelligence or an Enabler?
Stacy Baird - Europe’s Privacy Law - A Barrier to Artificial Intelligence or an Enabler?
Stacy Baird 
This article is part of the series, the Salzburg Questions for Corporate Governance by the Salzburg Global Corporate Governance Forum Join in the discussion on LinkedIn Companies across the globe are dealing with the impact of Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), as it has extraterritorial legal reach, revising privacy policies and practices (such as those annoying pop-ups about using cookies on many website, a notice required by GDPR). One of the topics of the work we were doing in Salzburg was whether boards needed to have expertise to address the use of AI in the company’s business processes and possibly, products and services. A question boards must consider is the implication of GDPR with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) or Machine Learning (ML). GDPR carries severe penalties, and significant privacy issues tend to carry high reputational cost. With the heightened concerns around AI, ML and privacy, there will be brighter lights shining on issues, when they arise. As your company moves into the use of these new technologies, are you prepared? Is your board? With GDPR in effect just over six months, it is too early to know the impact – good or bad. Do you see GDPR as an impediment or an enabler of AI and ML for your company? Are there legal frameworks you can imagine or are aware of that may be a better approach? Is your company weighing these issues? The more data processed by AI or ML system, the better and more accurate the technology is able to complete its tasks. When that data is personally identifying of individuals, questions come to the fore regarding privacy. There are also privacy concerns regarding the outputs of the AI or ML system that paints a portrait of an individual that may reveal personal attributes that the individual may prefer remain private. Sometimes, indeed, data may not be personally identifying, but could be compared with data that are, with the result of identifying an individual. The European Court of Justice has already held where this is “likely reasonably,” the former data moves into the class of data protected by the Data Protection Directive, the predecessor to the GDPR. In Europe, the GDPR, in part, addresses these issues directly, stating in Article 9: “Processing of personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, or trade union membership, and the processing of genetic data, biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person, data concerning health or data concerning a natural person’s sex life or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.” The GDPR requires consent of a data subject (i.e. the person whose data is being processed) be freely given, specific and informed, and unambiguous – and by a clear affirmative act, such as a writing or speaking. “Specific and informed” means that consent is granted only for that particular purpose for which the consent is being sought, and does not extend to other (e.g., new) purposes. Further, consent can be withdrawn at any time and the individual has a right to have the data deleted (i.e., the right to be forgotten).  An alternative to obtaining consent is to anonymize, de-identify or pseudonymize the data, which allows a data processor to use the data for purposes beyond which consent was obtained. However, the effectiveness of anonymization is only as good as the extent to which the anonymization is irreversible. As the Information Commissioner’s Office of the UK points out, it may not be possible to establish with absolute certainty a particular dataset is irreversible, especially when taken together with other data that may exist elsewhere. GDPR Article 5 sets out “principles relating to processing of personal data” including “lawfulness, fairness and transparency; purpose limitation; data minimization; accuracy; storage limitation; integrity and confidentiality; and accountability.” Some of the principles may be contrary to the use of AI and ML, which must first collect as much data as possible, and then analyze the data after collection (the “learning” process). This process makes complying with the purpose limitation and data minimization principles challenging. Article 22 protects data subjects from decisions based solely on “automated individual decision-making, including profiling” which produce legal effects or similarly significantly affects the data subject. The requirement can be overcome if the data subject gives explicit consent. As well, the restriction addresses decisions based solely on automated processing. Therefore, for decisions such as applications for credit, loans, health insurance, or in the case of job interviews, performance appraisals, school admissions, or court ordered incarceration, the automation can (and many would say should) be used to inform a human decision, not supplant it. The use of an AI and ML for “decision-making including profiling” must also be “explainable” to the data subject. But it is an open question as to the extent of the explainability – and to what degree the data subject must understand. Barriers to understanding an algorithm include the technical literacy of the data-subject individual and a mismatch between the mathematical optimization in high-dimensionality characteristic of machine learning (i.e., conditional probabilities generated by ML) and the demands of human-scale reasoning and styles of interpretation (i.e., human understanding of causality). There are competing views on whether the provisions of GDPR enable or are barriers to AI and ML. For example, does the GDPR right to withdraw consent weigh in the decision of a company to use the data? It may be a challenge to delete data in widely federated datasets, and doing so diminishes the “learning” based on the data. With each new use for data, the company is required to go back to get consent. Is that alone an impediment? With the growing range of devices collecting data (i.e., Internet of Things), will it be possible to get specific and informed consent as a practical matter? In contrast to those raising concerns, Jeff Bullwinkel at Microsoft has written that the GDPR framework strikes the right balance between protecting privacy and enabling the use of AI – provided the law is interpreted reasonably. What is your view? How is your company weighing these issues? Do you see the GDPR as an enabler? Blocker? Do you know enough about the GDPR to make informed decisions? Does the rest of your board know enough? Given the potential liabilities and risks to the company, do you think it should? Have an opinion?  We encourage readers to share your comments by joining in the discussion on LinkedIn Stacy Baird is a Salzburg Global Fellow and consulting director at the Singapore-based consulting firm TRPC. His expertise lies in law and advising businesses and governments on information technology, privacy, data protection, cloud computing, and intellectual property (IP) public policy matters. Stacy also serves as executive director of the U.S.-China Clean Energy Forum Intellectual Property Program, where he helps address bilateral technology transfer and IP issues in the context of clean energy research and commercialization. Previously, Stacy served as Senior Policy Advisor to U.S. Senator Maria Cantwell, including work on the U.S. Patriot Act, and advisor to U.S. Congressman Howard Berman on issues of first impression related to the then-nascent internet and the mapping of the human genome. Prior to law, Stacy worked as music recording engineer with clients including Madonna, Stevie Nicks, Elvis Costello, Brian Eno, and Francis Coppola. He held appointments as Visiting Scholar at the University of Southern California College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and Visiting Fellow at the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law. Stacy has a J.D. from Pace University and a B.A. in radio and television communications from San Francisco State University.  The Salzburg Questions for Corporate Governance is an online discussion series introduced and led by Fellows of the Salzburg Global Corporate Governance Forum. The articles and comments represent opinions of the authors and commenters, and do not necessarily represent the views of their corporations or institutions, nor of Salzburg Global Seminar. Readers are welcome to address any questions about this series to Forum Director, Charles E. Ehrlich: cehrlich@salzburgglobal.org To receive a notification of when the next article is published, follow Salzburg Global Seminar on LinkedIn or sign up for email notifications here: www.salzburgglobal.org/go/corpgov/newsletter
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Salzburg Global Fellow Randal K Quarles to Chair Financial Stability Board
Randal K. Quarles at Session 563 - Financing the Global Economy: How Can Traditional and Non-Traditional Sources Be Integrated?
Salzburg Global Fellow Randal K Quarles to Chair Financial Stability Board
Oscar Tollast 
Salzburg Global Fellow and US Federal Reserve Governor Randal K. Quarles has been appointed the new chair of the Financial Stability Board (FSB). Quarles, 61, replaces Bank of England Governor Mark Carney and will serve a three-year term. Klaas Knot, president of De Nederlandsche Bank, has been appointed vice chair and will replace Quarles in 2021. The Financial Stability Board is an international body which monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system. Quarles said, “Under [Mark Carney’s] leadership, the FSB has played a central coordinating role in building a resilient global financial system in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Ten years on, the FSB’s work remains just as relevant. “With its broad membership, it is uniquely placed to promote resilience and preserve an open and integrated global financial system in the future. I look forward to working with Klaas and all FSB members towards this goal.” Quarles became President Donald Trump’s first confirmed Fed nominee in October 2017. He serves as the Federal Reserve’s vice chairman for supervision. He previous worked in the Treasury Department under President George W. Bush between 2002 and 2006, serving first as assistant secretary for international affairs and then as undersecretary for domestic finance. Quarles has taken part in several programs at Salzburg Global. He first attended Schloss Leopoldskron in 2013 for Out of the Shadows: Regulation for the Non-Banking Financial Sector. The following year, he was a participant at The Future of Banking: Is There a Sustainable Business Model for Banks? He took part in his third Salzburg Global Finance Forum in 2015 when he attended The Future of Financial Intermediation: Banking, Securities Markets, or Something New? His most recent appearance at the Forum and Salzburg Global was in 2016 when he attended Financing the Global Economy: How Can Traditional and Non-Traditional Sources Be Integrated? The Salzburg Global Finance Forum tackles issues critical to the future of financial markets and global economic growth and stability. Created in 2011, its annual meeting facilitates candid in-depth analysis of strategic challenges and emerging risks by senior and rising leaders from financial services firms, supervisory and regulatory authorities, and professional service providers.
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Targeting Childhood Obesity from All Sides at Once
Photo by Jace & Afsoon on Unsplash
Targeting Childhood Obesity from All Sides at Once
Kwasi Gyamfi Asiedu 
“It is often easier to have an unhealthy snack or food moment than it is to have a healthy food moment,” says Karen den Hertog, program manager of the Amsterdam Healthy Weight Programme (AHWP). In 2012, 21% of young people aged zero to 19, in Amsterdam were overweight or obese. The problem was especially visible in children from low earning and immigrant households. “We [have seen] that number lower to 18 percent. So, that’s a reduction from 21 to 18 percent and the difference in the numbers is even bigger among the families with the low and the extreme low socioeconomic status,” den Hertog says. Den Hertog has run the program on three key messages: active behavior, food, and sleep. Success has not come without ruffling some feathers, however. Den Hertog says, “We stopped the food industry [from] sponsoring sports events or handing out funding materials... we said ‘We want to work together, but we want you to change something to the core of your entire enterprise... We can’t have you subsidize sporting events anymore because no amount of sporting can help children trade off the calories they have just eaten or drunk'.” She adds, “So, food reformulation or from the package labeling to smaller portion sizes charged with marketing, if you’re willing to do stuff like that we’re willing to work with you… I mean it’s not very strange [to] actually say ‘I want you to work in the core of your business.’” The program scored a significant win when one of the industry’s large retail chains in the country came on board. Den Hertog reveals she has also faced pushback from her colleagues at various other city departments. She says, “It’s not that they don’t want to help. But it is asking something different from them to include health in all their policies.” Citing the millions of tourists that visit Amsterdam annually, she says, “Inventing policies to balance out the crowded city center is difficult as it is, let alone if you need to include health in there as well.” So, how to do you gain the buy-in from colleagues? “You need to adapt more to the language of the other policy departments,” one of her colleagues, Thomas de Jager (who is also attending the program) told her - a point she agrees with. Den Hertog says, “It really takes time and shared language to actually understand each other really and to help each other.” Asked about what a straightforward initiative if adopted in other cities can help reduce childhood obesity, Den Hertog refers to an often ignored message of her program: sleep. “The evidence of how important sleep is is incredible. If a child - and the same applies to us as adults, but we don’t want to listen - doesn’t sleep enough, so many hormones get upset... It is unhealthy [and] you become overweight and obese far more quickly than if you would sleep enough. “It’s a very simple thing, and it’s of course very difficult because so many parents are struggling [with] multiple jobs, or they have poor living conditions with multiple children in one room, or they might live next to big roads or train tracks or [have] lots of light in the living room. “We should really take sleep as an essential thing as healthy food and [daily] physical activity.” AHWP's Outputs and Results 11 neighborhoods have a joint local Healthy Weight Pact More than 1,200 preschool parents are involved in Amsterdam Healthy Weight Programme activities Every year, an average of 60 information meetings of healthy eating and a healthy lifestyle are organized 1,200 severely obese children identified and being treated 300 health ambassadors highlight the importance of a healthy lifestyle in the focus neighborhoods 1,734 healthy eating consultations for overweight children and their parents 50 community initiatives a year 67 healthy school playgrounds More than 150,000 neighborhood residents reached 18 courses on healthy shopping and healthy cooking involving 150 participants 80 additional water fountains in the city 24,500 businesses reached through social media campaigns One Amsterdam Standard of Care, which is adopted throughout the city 160 curative interventions involving more than 1,000 participants The program Healthy Children, Healthy Weight is part of Salzburg Global's multi-year series Health and Health Care Innovation. This year’s program is being held in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
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Kopano Matlwa Mabaso - We're Learning From Others
Kopano Matlwa Mabaso in conversation in Parker Hall
Kopano Matlwa Mabaso - We're Learning From Others
Kwasi Gyamfi Asiedu 
“It is a social justice issue [in] that, even before you are born because often the drivers of stunting begin in pregnancy, you already begin your life disadvantaged, and that is unjust,” Dr. Kopano Matlwa Mabaso says, with a tonality which demonstrates the deep conviction she feels about stunting. The World Health Organization defines stunting as “the impaired growth and development that children experience from poor nutrition, repeated infection, and inadequate psychosocial stimulation.” According to the global health body, in 2017, 151 million children under the age of five had stunted growth. In Mabaso’s home country of South Africa, one in five children is stunted. Stunting has “long-term effects on education outcomes, economic outcomes, intergenerational poverty, and so it is a real travesty for a country like ours that is an upper middle-income country,” she says. Mabaso is the executive director of the Grow Great Campaign, an initiative that aims to eradicate hunger and reduce stunting by 2030 in line with the second Sustainable Development Goal: zero hunger. Mabaso is one of more than 50 participants from around the world who has convened at Schloss Leopoldskron in Salzburg, Austria to discuss and strategize on the theme: ‘Healthy Children, Healthy Weight.’ The Grow Great Campaign is hinged on four pillars: a national social franchise of mother and baby classes; support for community health care workers; advocacy; and a mass media campaign aimed at changing cultural norms around breastfeeding and balanced diets. The first 1,000 days (from conception to a child’s second birthday) are crucial if the battle against stunting is to be won. To achieve this and to avoid reinventing the wheel, the campaign has been looking at success stories around the world from Peru to India for inspiration and ideas that can be transposed into South Africa’s context. However, “poverty isn’t necessarily the reason not to overcome stunting,” says Mabaso. “There are countries with smaller economies than ours, that have achieved significant gains in stunting. Peru being an example... There are simple things that can be done, such as improving breastfeeding rates [and] delaying the introduction of solid foods, that don’t require a lot of resources but can have significant gains for children.” Reducing food waste so that everyone has access to affordable, nutritious meals is also another strategy. Aside from the obvious health benefits, there is a real economic imperative for taking on stunting. A report by the World Bank in 2018 labeled South Africa as the most unequal country on the planet. While significant strides have been made since the end of apartheid, wealth is still disproportionately distributed along racial lines. However, Mabaso is optimistic that if South Africa gets the upper hand over stunting, it will set all of its young people up for a fairer society. “It is a low hanging fruit,” Mabaso says. “There has been lots of modeling to show that reducing stunting has very high returns on investment economically. The money that we spend on this campaign, we make back many times over.” This financial return is possible because children who don’t have stunted growth perform better at school which translates to, among other things, increased chances of high paid work and the breaking of intergenerational poverty. It will also help lower the chances of their children having stunted growth. The long-term goal of the initiative is to reach a third of pregnant women in South Africa per annum at scale, and since starting their mass media campaign in June 2018, at least half of South Africa’s total population has been reached by its message, Mabaso believes. The initiative has also won some high profile supporters including the country’s first lady, Dr. Tshepo Motsepe. Born in Johannesburg while racial discrimination was still the law of the land, Mabaso has dedicated much of her adult life to social justice causes. She is the founder of Transitions Foundation, a youth action organization and the co-founder of WREMS (Waiting Rooms Education by Medical Students) which started while she was still in medical school. Her three novels, which have won her notable awards, also serve as social commentaries of a post-apartheid country. As to how she hopes attending Healthy Children, Healthy Weight will help the Grow Great Campaign, Dr. Mabaso says, “I think this is an opportunity to rejuvenate my mind. Listening to the experiences of others, it is also encouraging to realize that you are not alone. There are many others grappling with similar issues who have had lots of success...and [so] I am learning a lot.” The program Healthy Children, Healthy Weight is part of Salzburg Global's multi-year series Health and Health Care Innovation. This year’s program is being held in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
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Michael Nettles - With SEL, “What Works in Cape Town May Not Work in Cardiff”
Michael Nettles at Salzburg Global Seminar
Michael Nettles - With SEL, “What Works in Cape Town May Not Work in Cardiff”
Michael T. Nettles 
Good afternoon. And welcome to Social and Emotional Learning: A Global Synthesis. Or as I like to call it, “Season 3, Episode 4 of How and Why to Get Along With Others.” Given that there are 63 headstrong intellectuals here for five days of discourse and debate, we will surely put our own social and emotional skills to the test. I don’t know about you, but I would not have it any other way. My name is Michael Nettles, and I am the Senior Vice President of the Policy Evaluation and Research Center at Educational Testing Service — ETS — of Princeton, New Jersey. I am also the co-chair of this edition of the Salzburg Global Seminar, along with Barbara Holzapfel of Microsoft Education, and Maggie Mitchell Salem of the Qatar Foundation International in Washington, D.C. I am very gratified by the tremendous interest in this topic. This is the fourth SEL seminar that we have held over the past three years. We convened the first here in Salzburg in 2016, and followed up with seminars in by the Dead Sea in Jordan and last June at ETS in Princeton in the United States, as well as spin-off meetings and conferences in Kampala and Santiago. In all by the end of this session, more than 200 of our colleagues representing more than 50 countries will have participated in these discussions on the importance of traits variously referred to as social and emotional skills, soft skills, 21st century skills, noncognitive skills, and personality traits. We met in various locations around the world not to spread the word about the importance of SEL. Clearly, the word was already out. Indeed, interest in the topic is so great that we have scheduled another seminar for next March here in Salzburg. Season 4, Episode 5. Rather, we went elsewhere to learn how these skills are viewed, taught and measured in different places. It is a critical point given how geographically and culturally dependent education tends to be. What works in Cape Town may not work in Cardiff. That is certainly true in the United States, where public education is a jealously guarded local prerogative at best, and a political, cultural and racial flashpoint at worst. What works in Massachusetts will not work in Tennessee. Perhaps no one here is more familiar with that imperative than our colleague Karen Niemi, who is the President and CEO of the University of Illinois at Chicago’s Collaborative for Academic Social & Emotional Learning, or CASEL. CASEL works directly with 20 school districts serving 1.6 million K–12 students throughout the United States to help them embed SEL into their academic programs. It is a lot of different cultures to keep track of, and no one is more effective at it than Karen. But as a broad concept, Social and Emotional Learning is on the global education agenda — one that resonates powerfully among the most accomplished and renowned educators, researchers and policymakers throughout the world. You are proof of that. Not that we need it, but there is other proof: The U.N.’s Sustainable Development Goal for Education sets a target date of 2030 “to ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable … lifestyles [characterized by respect for] human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and nonviolence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.” The Global Pull of Soft Skills It is fair to ask why there is so much interest in the subject. The answer, I think we can all agree, is that social and emotional skills are foundational to individual, and thus community and global well-being. As for the precise definition of those skills, that too depends on geography and culture. The Big Five provide a framework: extroversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. But everyone further defines them in their own way, and context matters. As head of the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board, our colleague Dr. Jennifer Adams identified 10 critical “exit outcomes” for students. According to this approach, students should graduate being: goal oriented ethical decision makers academically diverse effective communicators resilient digitally fluent innovative and creative globally aware critical thinkers and collaborative That is a bit different from the approach taken in Manizales, Colombia, by the Urban Active School — the Escuela Activa Urbana, or EAU. The EAU encourages an active teaching model focused on classroom participation, democracy, tolerance, respect, conflict resolution, cooperation, collaboration, teamwork, leadership, and student motivation. Our colleague Maria Cortelezzi, Executive Director of Argentina’s Proyecto Educar 2050, and two co-authors examined the EAU’s approach in a 2014 article for the PREAL blog of the Inter-American Dialogue’s Education Program. They concluded that EAU students learn more than other public-school students at both the cognitive and noncognitive levels, particularly with regard to emotional development and development of students’ social skills. Manizales and Ottawa, incidentally, are two of the 11 cities around the world participating in the OECD’s Study on Social and Emotional Skills of 10- and 15-year-old students. On the other side of the world, our colleague Manish Sisodia, the Delhi minister of education, who had hoped to be with us but is being ably represented by Shailendra Sharma, is overseeing a “happiness curriculum”  for students in nursery up to class VIII at all Delhi government schools.  The curriculum, which Minister Sisodia and the Dalai Lama launched last July, includes meditation, moral values and mental exercises, and is aimed at helping students solve problems caused by negative and destructive emotions such as anger, hatred and jealousy. To quote from the Delhi Directorate of Education, “the primary purpose of education has to be to create happy, confident and fulfilled human beings, who will play a meaningful role in society. … Self-aware, sensitive and emotionally mature children are far more successful owing to their advanced ability to engage in meaningful relationships with their friends, family and society.” As Minister Sisodia put it in an interview with The Washington Post, “If a person is going through our education system for 18 years of his life and is becoming an engineer or a civil servant, but is still throwing litter on the ground or engaging in corruption, then can we really say that the education system is working?”   Back around the globe again, Marc Brackett of the Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence is the lead developer of an evidence-based approach to SEL that is centered on a different Big Five emotion skills: Recognizing, Understanding, Labeling, Expressing and Regulating emotions — or RULER. RULER aims to integrate social and emotional learning into the DNA of schools by enhancing how school administrators lead, how teachers teach, how students learn and how families parent. Research has shown that RULER improves academic performance; decreases bullying and other in-school problems; enriches the classroom atmosphere; reduces teacher stress and burnout; and enhances instructional practices. The RULER approach has been adopted by more than 1,500 public, charter and private pre-school to high schools in the United States, Australia, China, England, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and Sri Lanka. Assessment So SEL is not just catching on. It has caught on. With changes in curriculum come — or should come — changes in assessment. Whether we ultimately make effective and meaningful use of SEL will depend on whether we develop and deploy effective and meaningful ways to assess soft skills, and put the test data to effective, meaningful and, importantly, affordable use. In fact, Catherine Millett, who hosted the opening conversation on SEL in December 2016, posed a question to Koji Miyamoto and me about the contextual challenges that arise when it comes to measurement and how can we overcome these challenges of using common measures in Africa, Asia, Latin America and in other parts of the world. Koji and I obviously did not provide a sufficient answer, and that is another reason why we are all here today. That is where we are now. Of course, assessing tolerance and collaboration are substantially more complex than assessing math or reading. Simply defining socio-emotional constructs can be elusive, especially in the absence of identifiable learning progressions, as our colleague Esther Care, of the Brookings Institution in Washington DC, notes in a co-authored report published in October. Even then, the same geographic and cultural variations that characterize education in general raise equally complex issues of cross-cultural validity.  If you think education is culturally specific, I would submit that acceptable social and emotional attitudes and behaviors are culturally specific on steroids. As Esther Care and her Brookings colleagues put it, “Challenges specific to assessment of 21st century skills may be one reason why education systems are having difficulty translating policies into actual practice in schools and classrooms.” Addressing that variation is an aim of the OECD’s Study on Social and Emotional Skills — to produce a set of validated international instruments to measure social and emotional skills of school-aged children; and to demonstrate that valid, reliable, and comparable information on social and emotional skills can be produced across diverse student populations and settings, and to identify the policies, practices and other conditions that help or hinder the development of these critical skills. I should point out that ETS is advising the OECD on SEL measures. Among our other activities in this area, we are also: examining SEL measures in the context of the United States Department of Education’s National Assessment of Educational Progress developing a situational judgment test for middle and high school students for the Wallace Foundation, a New York City-based philanthropy that works to improve learning and enrichment for disadvantaged children and foster the vitality of the arts for everyone designing a survey of teachers, school leaders and administrators on the value of noncognitive assessments and the clarity of score reporting integrating into our data analyses and publications such affective measures as communication skills, achievement motivation, intellectual engagement, sociability, working independently, time management, leadership and risk-taking and advising CASEL’s Assessment Work Group What’s New Is Old It is an exciting area of education, research and assessment. It all seems very new! And yet it is not at all new to those of us at ETS. Henry Chauncey, the founder and first president of my organization, was pondering the importance of soft skills in 1949. In handwritten notebooks that Catherine Millett and I discovered in the ETS archives some months ago, Chauncey pondered what he called the “non-intellectual factors which affect success or failure.” He was interested in investigating such “personal qualities” as “drive … motivation … conscientiousness, intellectual stamina … ability to get along with others” as ways to “ascertain whether [an] individual will be [a] good member of the community, in college and later in life, in any one of the many ways that one can contemplate …” Considering that he wrote these notes just a few years after the end of a World War and at the dawn of the Atomic Age, it is perhaps not surprising that devising ways to improve social and emotional skills might have been of concern. In some ways, teaching social and emotional skills is the most conservative tradition in education. One need not subscribe to any particular catechism to see in the Big Five emanations of what the Golden Rule, the New Testament injunction to “do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” Somewhat further back, Aristotle asserted that “Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all,” an observation that is featured in a brochure of Dr. Brackett’s Center for Emotional Intelligence at Yale. More recently, the Dalai Lama has pointed out that one seeks enlightenment not for oneself but for the benefit of all beings. I could say that the world could use a little more of that these days! In that context, rather than lament the current crop of world leaders who seem oddly enamored of intolerance, xenophobia and scapegoating, perhaps we can view them as our best advertisements for effective Social and Emotional Learning curricula. As the saying goes, “Thank you. You are my teacher.” But we better hurry since we may be just one tweet away from catastrophe. Once again, welcome. And I look forward to learning from you all over the next few days. The program Social and Emotional Learning: A Global Synthesis is part of Salzburg Global's mutli-year series Education for Tomorrow’s World. This year’s program is being held in partnership with ETS, Microsoft and Qatar Foundation International, who will also co-chair the program, together with additional partners, the British Council, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation and the Inter-American Development Bank.
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Expanding Collaborations Within and Beyond Native Nations
From Left to right; Adrienne Benjamin, Amber Mathern, Alayna Eagle Shield, Lindsey Mae Willie, Christy Bieber (Giizhigad)
Expanding Collaborations Within and Beyond Native Nations
Anna Rawe 
In a letter introducing the Bush Foundation’s 2018 annual report on Native Nations Investments, Jenn Ford Reedy, the organization’s president, said, “We believe that the field of philanthropy can do better at acknowledging, celebrating and supporting Native nations and people.” One way in which the Bush Foundation has already done so is by supporting the inclusion of young cultural innovators from Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and 23 Native Nations at this year’s Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Innovators. This included Adrienne Benjamin, Alayna Eagle Shield, and Amber Mathern, who have become the latest members of the Upper Midwest USA YCI Hub. With the support of the Canada Council for the Arts, Salzburg Global also welcomed Lindsey Mae Willie, a filmmaker from the Dzawada’enuxw First Nation. Christy Bieber (Giizhigad), an Anishinaabe artist and cultural worker based in Southwest Detroit also attended the Forum with support from the Kresge Foundation, as Salzburg Global seeks to connect and empower a critical mass of creative change-makers across the world. Alayna Eagle Shield is the health education director for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and is the chair of the Native American Development Center. Eagle Shield applied for the YCI Forum after hearing about it through the Bush Foundation, whose programs she had attended before. She felt it was an “amazing opportunity.” Eagle Shield has recently focused much of her energy on a beading business which she runs with her mother. Her daughter has also started to get involved. She said, “[It gives] her this avenue that our people have used for centuries to be able to create and have a lifeway that way…  [and we] create beautiful works of art that our people can wear in resistance, that we’re still carrying on our traditions; we’re still able to wear our jewelry in modern days and meetings.” Adrienne Benjamin (Amikogaabawiike) is a member of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe (Anishinaabe) in central Minnesota. Her work is centered around taking pride in her heritage and encouraging others to do the same. Benjamin recently co-created a youth leadership program called Ge-niigaanizijig - The Ones Who Will Lead – where 25 young people received leadership and language mentoring. Benjamin herself was mentored by a local elder and greatly values all she learned about the language, stories, and practices. She was brought up with a grandfather that still spoke the Ojibwe language and was exposed to some of her traditional Anishinaabe culture, something she is very aware that others did not. She remains concerned about how “many youth grow up being unable to dream larger dreams outside of the reservation or even within because of a lack of access to arts, higher education, and information. There are very few if any arts and culture programs available that showcase Indigenous/Native American [culture] and celebrate our heritage in ways that make our community youth feel proud.” As a participant at the YCI Forum, Benjamin said she valued the connections she made with other indigenous participants working in the cultural, education, and health sectors. She said, “It was nice to have that familiarity in such a foreign space, and because we all deal with similar issues with sovereignty, land-based issues, government recognition, and so on; it was a great place to have deeper discussions about those issues in a world lens.” Throughout the program, participants learned how others had experienced similar challenges in their personal and professional lives. For Eagle Shield, the idea of treating herself as a “precious resource” particularly resonated as she struggles to balance her commitments. How to best use your time was a concern shared by Amber Mathern, an enrolled member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa who currently teaches at Northern State University. Outside of her teaching work she does freelance consulting, working with reservations on marketing analytics and auditing casinos. She said, “I always think ‘Oh I could be doing more… [sometimes I have to remind myself] no, [what I do] does make a difference whether it’s something small or big.” The importance of being yourself as being a way of making change is important to Mathern. Living in Aberdeen, South Dakota, Mathern knows many there have never been to a reservation, which she suggests can lead to outdated views of what a Native American community is like. Mathern said, “I remind myself that ‘Hey, maybe that’s why I ended up in Aberdeen, South Dakota’ around people who don’t know the culture because maybe that’s my opportunity and [the] reason for me being there is to help share that.” It is in her work at Northern State University that Mathern feels she has the biggest impact, encouraging her students to think differently. What’s her ethos? She said, “Every single interaction - as minute as it might seem - at that moment it has an impact… and I don’t want to say in the future [my students will] make an impact; they’re making an impact right now.” When thinking specifically about Native American youth Mathern suggests there is a need to learn both about their cultural heritage and learn how to cultivate a global mindset. She said, “A lot of times our children don’t get the chance to travel out of the state, even to travel across the United States… [I think it’s] important [that] we tell them ‘Oh you can do this; you can connect with people internationally.’” Benjamin also praised the value of hearing from different voices.  She said, “I think that it is so valuable to understand that not everyone thinks like you, nor do they understand the world in the same context that you might, and to have the opportunity for discussion and understanding around that is truly what the world needs.” Eagle Shield also thought participants understood each other and stood on the same level. She said, “Coming here and getting to meet people from all over the world… it wasn’t like the Oppression Olympics… So many people here at Salzburg Global are still very connected to their culture; they still speak their languages, they’re still fighting oppressive forces. There was no comparing, it was like a deep level of understanding that is just beautiful to me, and I really hope to be involved and facilitate these types of learning at home, too. There’s so much we can learn from each other even though we aren’t necessarily the same.” The Salzburg Global Forum for Young Cultural Innovators V is part of a ten-year multi-year series. This year's program is supported by the Albanian-American Development Foundation, American Express, Arts Council Malta, Arts Council Korea, Asia-Europe Foundation,  Bush Foundation, Cambodian Living Arts, Canada Council for the Arts, Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy, Foundation Adelman pour l’Education, Fulbright Greece, Japan Foundation, Korea Foundation, the Llewellyn Thompson Memorial Fellowship, Robert Bosch Stiftung, The Kresge Foundation, Lloyd A. Fry Foundation, The McKnight Foundation, The Nippon Foundation, World Culture Open, Adena and David Testa, and the U.S. Embassy Valetta, Malta. More information on the program can be found here. More information on the series can be found here. You can follow all the discussions on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram by using the hashtag #SGSyci.
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