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Cutler Fellows

Wendy Cutler – Career Negotiator Analyzes the New Order in International Trade
Wendy Cutler and Mark Wu open the seventh Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program in Washington, D.C.
Wendy Cutler – Career Negotiator Analyzes the New Order in International Trade
Dani Karnoff 
Speaking to 53 law students at the Salzburg Cutler* Fellows Program at the United States Institute of Peace last month, Wendy Cutler, vice president of the Asia Society Policy Institute and former acting deputy United States trade representative, provided insight into current challenges facing international trade negotiations. As a trade negotiator through the Reagan, Bush Sr., Clinton, Bush Jr. and Obama administrations, the former career diplomat emphasized how the role of the US in the global trade arena has changed dramatically since the inauguration of President Donald Trump. Toward the end of her three-decade-long government service, she had helped lead negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership. But following the US’ shift to an “America First” international trade policy, Cutler told participants that countries around the world have since had to learn to work together – without the US – to successfully implement such wide-ranging multilateral trade deals. While international legal frameworks put in place since World War II have fostered the flow of ideas, goods and services around the world, those times are now behind us, she lamented. “The international rules-based trade system set up by the World Trade Organization worked for a long time,” Cutler said, “yet the idea that the United States hadn’t been benefitting from these international trade agreements is an issue that has been building up for many years.” Cutler posited that on the domestic side, trade agreements serve as a scapegoat for economic anxiety in the United States. Though approximately 80% of job loss in the manufacturing sector can be attributed to technological innovation, she said, trade deals are nonetheless the primary target. Cutler’s remarks, alongside those of program chair Mark Wu of Harvard University, opened the seventh annual Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program, which gathered students representing 22 countries – including Australia, China, Germany, Haiti, India, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States, among others – in Washington, DC to discuss the future of public and private international law. Since its founding in 2012, the Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program has carried forward Washington “super lawyer” Lloyd N. Cutler’s legacy and continues to empower rising legal professionals from around the world. Lloyd Cutler was a long-time champion and former chairman of Salzburg Global Seminar. He believed passionately in the role law plays in nation building, and in the ability of the law and legal experts to contribute solutions to the world’s most pressing challenges. Wendy Cutler offered first-hand insight into the role of legal professionals at the Office of the US Trade Representative, as well as key advice for young lawyers as they enter into the next phase of their careers. She stressed the shifting global landscape is unknown territory for trade negotiators and lawyers in the Office of the US Trade Representative under the Trump administration, yet as career professionals, these individuals continue to be well respected, regardless of diverging domestic and international opinions on the current government’s trade policy. Cutler’s candid reflections paved the way for another successful Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program. In addition to Cutler and Wu, the Cutler Fellows engaged with other prominent public servants and legal professionals over the two-day program, broadening their professional networks and exploring new ways to forge careers in international law – whatever the future may hold. *Wendy Cutler bears no relation to Lloyd N. Cutler, for whom the Cutler Fellows Program is named. The Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program is held under the auspices of the Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law. The annual program collaborates with 11 of the leading US law schools. This year’s program was sponsored by NYU Washington and Arnold & Porter. More information on the session is available here.
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Promising Lawyers Inspired to Unlock Their Potential
Participants and faculty of the seventh annual Salzburg Cutler Law Fellows Program
Promising Lawyers Inspired to Unlock Their Potential
Allison Cowie 
When Wendy Cutler would sit across the table the world’s top trade delegations, the former diplomat and negotiator in the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative would rely on three critical traits to successfully broker deals and carry out the American trade agenda: her listening skills, her patience, and her resilience. Addressing a room full of the country’s top international law students and faculty at the United States Institute of Peace on Friday, February 22, Cutler charged her audience with developing these skills to help them become more effective lawyers and negotiators. “Listening is key,” Cutler said. “By listening, you can really deal through a drafting change and put your proposal forward. You also have to be patient - negotiating can take a long time,” she said, recalling late nights with little progress across the negotiating table from foreign trade delegations. It was in times like these where she needed to balance standing firm and finding compromises. “You need to be resilient and figure out how to turn an impasse around. It’s like dating,” Cutler said, to chuckles in the audience. “It’s important to have a problem solver that is able to bring everyone back together, despite disagreements in trade negotiations.” Cutler’s remarks opened the seventh annual Salzburg Cutler Law Fellows Program, which gathered students from 11 law schools and 22 countries in Washington, DC to discuss the future of international law and public service. Wendy Cutler bears no relation to Lloyd N. Cutler, for whom the Cutler Fellows Program is named. Over two days, February 22-23, Cutler Fellows met with top lawyers, negotiators, and public servants. Speakers included Cutler, who now serves as vice president at the Asia Society Policy Institute; Ambassador C. Boyden Gray, White House counsel to George H. W. Bush; Kathy Ruemmler, White House counsel to Barack Obama; and John Bellinger, former U.S. legal adviser to the Department of State and the National Security Council. In anticipation of the program, Fellows prepared substantial working papers on emerging questions in international law. Faculty advisors from each of the participating law schools - the University of Chicago, Columbia, Duke, Georgetown, Harvard, Michigan, New York University, Penn, Stanford, the University of Virginia, and Yale - led Fellows through workshops to improve their papers for eventual publication in academic journals and SalzburgGlobal.org. On Friday evening, Gray, Ruemmler, and Bellinger shared their perspectives on the role of the President’s legal counsel. Their conversation gave Fellows and guests an inside look at how the White House considers international law when making foreign and domestic decisions. Judge William Webster, the former FBI and CIA director, attended the Friday evening program and joined Bellinger and Fellows for dinner at the Army and Navy Club sponsored by Arnold & Porter LLP. Fellows gathered on Saturday at NYU Washington, DC, where program chair Mark Wu and Cutler Fellows co-founder Bill Burke-White led a panel discussion on the intersection of international law and development work. Katrin Kuhlmann, president and founder of New Markets Lab, lent the panel her legal expertise in trade and development. Kuhlmann emphasized the law’s power to operationalize trade as a tool for improving livelihoods and living standards in developing countries. Adejoké Babington-Ashaye of the World Bank shared her stories of prioritizing human rights in development work. In working with truth and reconciliation committees after the Lord’s Resistance Army’s takeover of northern Uganda, she would meet with witnesses and victims, many of whom were telling their stories for the first time. As an investigator, she “gave people a chance to tell their stories of what happened to them.” “The future of international criminal law is actually national,” said Babington-Ashaye. She added: “International development work is not going in and telling people what to do; there are rule of law issues everywhere, not only in developing countries. Rather, it’s working together in a manner that is respectful of national expertise.” Later that day, students met in small groups with Kuhlmann, Babington-Ashaye, and three other mentors for candid career conversations. Two mentors, Thomas Weatherall from the U.S. Department of State and Sara Salama from Coptic Orphans, were former Cutler Fellows; they were joined by Gomiluk Otokwala of the International Monetary Fund as well as Babington-Ashaye and Kuhlmann. Fellows came away from the program with a keen sense of this calling. “Being able to connect with so many people also interested in international law, as well as scholars and professionals, made me feel very inspired to keep at it,” one Fellow said. “It has re-energized my interest in public service and international affairs,” another added. “My whole perspective changed on what it means to be an international lawyer.” Established in 2012, the Salzburg Cutler Law Fellows Program honors the legacy of Lloyd N. Cutler, the Washington “superlawyer” and counsel to U.S. Presidents Carter and Clinton. Cutler, who also served as Chairman of the Board of Salzburg Global Seminar, firmly believed in mentoring young leaders to use the rule of law as a tool to make the world a better place. The Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program is held under the auspices of the Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law. The annual program collaborates with eleven of the leading U.S. law schools. This year's program is being sponsored by Arnold & Porter LLP, and NYU Washington, DC, and contributors to the Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law.
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On the Cutting Edge - Introducing This Year's Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program
Students at the top of their game from 11 law schools will take part in this year’s Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program
On the Cutting Edge - Introducing This Year's Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program
Allison Cowie 
More than 50 of the country’s top law students will gather together in Washington, DC, this weekend to discuss the current challenges and opportunities facing the international legal community. In this seventh annual meeting of the Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program, held Feb. 21-23, the 2019 Cutler Fellows represent 11 law schools, 22 countries, and myriad interests in the international law and public service sectors. Over the course of the weekend, Cutler Fellows will hear from leading figures in the international legal community, including Wendy Cutler, vice president of the Asia Society Policy Institute, who will kick off the program on Friday morning with an armchair discussion on “Asia and the Future of Trade: What’s at Stake?” She will be joined by Cutler Fellows program chair Mark Wu, Henry L. Stimson professor of law at Harvard Law School. Later that day, former White House counsels Kathy Ruemmler and Ambassador C. Boyden Gray, who served in the Barack Obama and George H. W. Bush administrations, respectively, will discuss the role of the legal counsel within the executive branch. They will be joined on stage by John B. Bellinger, III, former US legal adviser and current partner at Arnold & Porter LLP, over dinner sponsored by Bellinger’s firm. Friday’s program will open at the United States Institute of Peace. With the guidance of faculty advisors from each of the participating law schools, the Cutler Fellows will workshop research papers tackling issues such as human rights, trade and sustainable development, space law, corporate accountability and international arbitration. As in the past, Cutler Fellows come from the top 11 law schools in the country: Chicago, Columbia, Duke, Georgetown, Harvard, Michigan, New York University, Penn, Stanford, the University of Virginia, and Yale. On Saturday, Fellows will participate in a knowledge café with mentors from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, New Markets Lab, the US Department of State, and Coptic Orphans. Two mentors, Sara Salama and Thomas Weatherall, are Cutler Fellows from previous years; Katrin Kuhlmann, Gomiluk Otokwala, and Adejoke Babington-Ashaye are returning to the knowledge café after each serving as mentors in past Cutler Fellows programs. The Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program is the flagship program of the Cutler Center for the Rule of Law, named for Lloyd N. Cutler, a Washington super-lawyer and counselor to two US presidents. Cutler, who also served as Chairman of the Board of Salzburg Global Seminar, firmly believed in mentoring young leaders to use the rule of law as a tool to make the world a better place. Cutler’s daughter, Judge Beverly Cutler of the Alaska Superior Court, will attend a portion of this year’s program. The Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program is held under the auspices of the Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law. The annual program collaborates with eleven of the leading U.S. law schools. This year's program is being sponsored by Arnold & Porter LLP, and NYU Washington, DC, and contributors to the Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law.
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James Thornton - The Law Can Help Us “Succeed in Saving Civilization”
James Thornton takes questions after delivering the Eighth Cutler Lecture on the Rule of Law. Credit: Salzburg Global Seminar/Stephanie Natoli
James Thornton - The Law Can Help Us “Succeed in Saving Civilization”
Nicole Reisinger 
Next month, December 2018, national governments and other parties will gather in Poland, marking three years since the landmark Paris Agreement was signed and striving to adopt guidelines for the global climate accord to “ensure the true potential of the Paris Agreement can be unleashed.”  Just weeks ahead of this new round of negotiations, guests gathered in Washington, DC for the Eighth Annual Lloyd N. Cutler Lecture on the Rule of Law, where environmental lawyer and social entrepreneur, James Thornton made the case for how the law – at all levels, municipal, national and international – can be used to better protect our planet. Thornton’s cautionary yet hopeful lecture was titled “When the Earth is your Client: Taking the Law into our own Hands” and was followed by a question and answer session moderated by Clare Shine, former environmental lawyer and current Salzburg Global Vice President and Chief Program Officer. Tom Mansbach, Chair of the Cutler Center for the Rule of Law at Salzburg Global Seminar, offered the opening remarks. “Many years ago I wondered if we were on a path to end life on the planet. Now we know life on the planet will go on, but it may be a planet unfit for us,” warned Thornton, the founder and CEO of ClientEarth, Europe’s first public interest environmental law organization.  A study released in October by the United Nations’ scientific panel on climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, warned that action must be taken within the next 12 years to stunt the rising global temperature. Any increase beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius would significantly worsen the risks for hundreds of millions of people. “Crossing that threshold leads to a tipping point,” warned Thornton.   The solution is to build an “Ecological Civilization,” Thornton claimed. The Paris Agreement is a piece of that new architecture. It serves as a global framework for emissions reduction and aims to hold countries accountable to come up with plants to reduce emissions. Country delegations will convene at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP24) in Katowice, Poland next month for follow-up talks to establish a rule book to encourage the needed reductions. So far, only Morocco and The Gambia have come up with plans.  Thornton attributes the conception of an Ecological Civilization to the Chinese. With help from ClientEarth, Thornton’s non-profit environmental law firm, the country is working to reconceive economic policies, reform the legal system, and redesign its agricultural and industrial policies. One of China’s innovations is to allow citizen groups to bring cases against polluting companies to help improve compliance. Another reform, Thornton said, “is to create a series of environment courts, from regional to the Supreme Court level, to handle environment cases.” In these courts, with the help of ClientEarth, China trains judges and prosecutors in climate litigation to bring and decide cases. Thornton discussed the many ways citizens can use the law to protect the Earth and its environment, from holding companies and governments accountable by taking them to court to building the capacity of others to use the law. Whether it be disrupting complacency in the UK legal system or uprooting incumbents in the Polish, German and Australian coal mining industry, Thornton finds hope in empowering people through the law to challenge and redesign the system.   Thornton concluded his lecture by suggesting that “if we hold governments to account, move aside the incumbents, empower people everywhere to use the law to open the future, we can indeed succeed in saving civilization.” In the Q&A section of the evening, Clare Shine and James Thornton explored the paradox that the science, economics and citizen demand are incresingly aligned, compared to the sluggishness of governments’ responses to climate change. “Climate change is a planetary issue and responibility. It’s existential,” Shine said. The conversation, which also included questions from the audience, touched upon the intersection of biodiversity and climate change, creating compelling and enforceable environmental policy, and what can be done to accelerate practical responses to the findings of climate change science.  The evening concluded with closing remarks delivered by Stephen Salyer, President of the Salzburg Global Seminar.  This lecture was held by Salzburg Global Seminar on Wednesday, November 14 at the Phillips Collection, under the auspices of the Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law. The lecture series was started by Salzburg Global Seminar in 2009 to honor the life and work of Lloyd N. Cutler, former White House Counsel to Presidents Carter and Clinton and long-time Chair of Salzburg Global’s Board of Directors.
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Can Lawyers Save the Planet? 
Can Lawyers Save the Planet? 
Salzburg Global Seminar 
As governments attempt to negotiate guidelines for a global climate accord, Salzburg Global Seminar will host the eighth Lloyd N. Cutler Lecture on the Rule of Law on in Washington to consider the role of lawyers in the battle against climate change.  James Thornton, CEO of ClientEarth, will deliver the lecture on Wednesday, November 14 at The Phillips Collection, where he will discuss emerging international environmental legal trends, environmental policy strategies and practices, and how the law can be used to better protect our planet. Environmental lawyer and social entrepreneur Thornton founded ClientEarth in 2007. As Europe’s first public interest environmental law organization, ClientEarth uses advocacy, litigation and research to address climate change, biodiversity loss and toxic chemicals. From his early years in forcing the US government to meet its environmental legal obligations under the Clean Water Act to recent court victories against the UK government over pollution and protecting the Bialowieza Forest in Poland, Thornton and his firm have had many successes for their number one client: our planet.  Last year, Thornton authored the book Client Earth, which details the organization’s success over the past decade. Co-written with his husband, writer Martin Goodman, Client Earth has won awards and plaudits, with British newspaper, The Guardian calling it “a hopeful book about the environment and a page-turner about the law.” He also advises the Supreme People’s Court of China on the development and enforcement of environmental law. Last year, ahead of President Trump’s withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, Thronton stated that China is poised to “leave the US in the dust on clean energy.” Thornton follows the likes of Supreme Court Justice Stephen G. Breyer, former State Department legal advisor John Bellinger, and former Google executive chairman Eric Schmidt in delivering the thought-provoking annual lecture. The Lloyd N. Cutler Lecture was established by Salzburg Global Seminar in 2010 in memory of Lloyd N. Cutler, the Washington “superlawyer” who served as White House Counsel to Presidents Carter and Clinton. Cutler also served as Chair of Salzburg Global Seminar’s Board of Directors for a decade and advocated passionately for mentoring young leaders with a commitment to shaping a better world through law and the rule of law.  To attend the event, please register on Splashthat.
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Salzburg Global Fellows Sign Former US National Security Officials’ Letter to President Trump
American flag
Salzburg Global Fellows Sign Former US National Security Officials’ Letter to President Trump
Salzburg Global Seminar 
More than 250 former US national security officials – including four members of the Salzburg Global community – have joined a rare public campaign to rebuke President Donald J. Trump for withdrawing the security clearance of former CIA director John Brennan, who has become a vocal critic of the president. On August 16, 15 American former senior intelligence officials from bipartisan presidential administrations signed an open letter condemning President Trump’s decision as “an attempt to stifle free speech.” William H. Webster – the first and only person to have served as director of both the CIA and the FBI and who at age 94 continues to serve on the advisory board of Salzburg Global’s Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law – was among the signatories.  Bipartisan outcry over President Trump's revocation of Brennan's security clearance continued to grow with the release of a statement of opposition signed on August 17 by 60 retired CIA officials and then on Monday by another 177 signatories spanning a wide range of national security jobs. Among them were Salzburg Global Fellows John B. Bellinger, III, former legal counsel, National Security Council; Antony Blinken, former deputy secretary of state and deputy national security advisor; and Eliot A. Cohen, former counselor of the US Department of State and former member of the Defense Policy Advisory Board.  The statements indicated that while the signatories do not necessarily agree with the opinions expressed by Brennan, their signatures represent a firm belief in Brennan’s right to express them, as protected by the First Amendment of the US Constitution.  See the full list of individuals who publicly opposed President Trump’s decision here. The changing political climate in the US has been a point of discussion at a number of other Salzburg Global Seminar programs in the last two years, building on long legacies of programs in American studies, the rule of law, and the role of media.  In September 2017, the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA) held a symposium on Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration, the report from which was published in January 2018, marking the first anniversary of President Trump’s inauguration.  Letter signatories Webster and Bellinger (who delivered the 2016 Cutler Lecture shortly after Trump’s election and served as Webster’s special assistant at the CIA) voiced their support for the intelligence community during the Salzburg Cutler Fellows program in February 2018. Speaking to a group of students from 11 top US law schools, the two mentors defended the intelligence agencies under fire from President Trump and called on the aspiring lawyers to help rebuild public trust.  In July and August 2018, students from around the globe examined the implications for journalism in the “post-truth” world at the Salzburg Academy on Media and Global Change.  Salzburg Global Seminar will continue to examine, debate, and dissect the political climate in the US when academics, Americanists, political scientists, cultural professionals, and public servants convene at Schloss Leopoldskron in September for the next SSASA symposium, Understanding America in the 21st Century: Culture and Politics.   Questions for discussion include “What explains the loss of trust that America is currently experiencing and what are the implications for the future?” and “In what way and manner has the expectation and conduct of political leadership changed in the 21st century?” It is exceedingly rare for intelligence professionals who spent most of their careers in the shadows and who tend to abstain from politically-charged public disputes to launch such a public campaign. However, in the initial statement issued on Thursday, the former intelligence leaders wrote that they felt “compelled to respond in the wake of the ill-considered and unprecedented remarks and actions taken by the White House.”  Such unprecedented remarks – and the responses they provoke – will provide much fodder for discussion at Salzburg Global programs for many more months to come.   
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Salzburg Global President's Report 2018
Salzburg Global President's Report 2018
Louise Hallman 
“How does a relatively small but influential NGO help shape a better world? That is the question Salzburg Global Seminar set out to answer as we entered our 70th anniversary year,” explains Salzburg Global President & CEO, Stephen L. Salyer in this year’s edition of the Salzburg Global Chronicle.  Founded in 1947, Salzburg Global Seminar has the mission to challenge current and future leaders to shape a better world. Our multi-year program series aim to bridge divides, expand collaboration and transform systems.  Features This year’s edition of the Salzburg Global Chronicle puts forth this renewed mission and strategic framework of the 70-year-old organization through a series of features and mini profiles of our Fellows and their projects. A Positive Space in a Polarizing World From Students to Statesmen Combined Efforts, Maximum Effect  From Ideas to Impact Radical Reinvention From Local to Global Campaign The Chronicle also announced the launch of Salzburg Global’s largest-ever fundraising campaign. Inspiring Leadership: The Campaign for Salzburg Global Seminar will seek to raise $18 million over the next three years to expand our scholarship program, invest in developing innovative solutions to complex problems and secure this organization and our historic home of Schloss Leopoldskron for generations to come.  “Campaigns are about vision. They support critical, compelling and transformational priorities,” states Salyer. “The Campaign Inspiring Leadership  — gift by gift, investment by investment — will empower people, policies, and placemaking that can transform the world.”  For the Love of Humankind From Scholarships to Schloss Renovations Yearbook Now in its fifth year, this year’s Chronicle is for the first time accompanied by a “Yearbook.” As Clare Shine, Salzburg Global Vice President and Chief Program Officer explains: “Our 2017 Yearbook draws these rich strands together. It provides an overview of our activities and partnerships in Salzburg and around the world, highlighting our multi-year program goals and the concrete outcomes driving short and longer-term impact. We wish you good reading and look forward to working with you in the future.” Download the Yearbook (PDF) You can read all the stories and download both sections of the 2018 President’s Report on the dedicated webpage: www.SalzburgGlobal.org/chronicle/2018 
 
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