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The Life and Times of a News Bureau Chief in Washington
Elisabeth Bumiller speaking at the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA)
The Life and Times of a News Bureau Chief in Washington
Mirabelle Morah and Oscar Tollast 
In her role as the New York Times’ Washington bureau chief, Elisabeth Bumiller’s day can start as early as five o’clock in the morning. The news never sleeps, and there are always overnight events for her to catch up on. By nine o’clock, Bumiller is in the office preparing for the morning news meeting. She joins her colleagues in New York via video link and outlines the bureau’s plans for the day. Forty-five minutes or so later, the meeting reaches a conclusion – for now. Following many questions and intense conversations, Bumiller has a firmer idea of what her day ahead may look like – well, at least as much as is possible in the life of a journalist at a major national news outlet. As stories come in, reporters begin to file them. Some articles are put online before noon to catch the morning traffic. Bumiller may attend another small editors’ meeting about previously discussed topics, or she may go out for a working lunch with a colleague. By half-past two, she’s in touch with New York again. “I start getting calls from New York, or I call them saying here’s what we think is good for the front page… I’ll say, ‘This story is looking good,’ ‘This one’s not ready yet, but you should think about it,’ ‘This one is not going to work,’ ‘We’re holding this.’” Bumiller will then start asking reporters for the tops of their stories. “I can’t pitch the story if I don’t know what you’re going to say. That’s a constant stress,” she said. By half-past four, there’s a bit more clarity. By then, barring any breaking news, staff know what will be on tomorrow’s front page, what stories matter for the web and which stories will need to be cared for overnight.  “Between five and eight stories are coming in, and I don’t edit as much as I used to… but I often will just grab a story because we’re shorthanded or if there’s a story I want to edit…” explains Bumiller. “I usually leave sometime around 7.30 or 8 [pm]. That’s my day.”  Life-long dream Bumiller always wanted to write. Her uncle, Frank Cormier, a White House reporter for the Associated Press, appeared to have a “very exciting life.” That is what inspired Bumiller to pursue journalism, starting with her high school newspaper, the Walnut Hills Chatterbox. She then attended the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University – where she got her “real education” working for the Daily Northwestern. Her education continued thereafter at the Miami Herald and Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism.  Upon leaving Columbia, she received a message to call Sally Quinn, a writer for the Washington Post’s style section. Would Bumiller be interested in covering events in Washington? “I ended up flying down to Washington right before I graduated, and I got the job,” Bumiller remembers. “My classmates all said… they wouldn’t have taken that frivolous job but, at the time, the Washington Post was the most exciting paper on the face of the earth.” Bumiller joined the newspaper a few years after the Watergate scandal. Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, who did much of the original reporting on the scandal for the Post, were still in the newsroom. In her role, Bumiller covered events such as political fundraisers on Capitol Hill and parties at the State Department, but she was also able to write feature stories and profiles. She said, “I made it into a better a job.” The role gave her a greater education on politics in the US capital. “The style section was really well-read… It was a great job. It was high pressure, actually… The idea was I wasn’t going to cover what people were wearing, I was covering what they were saying about politics and the news of the day.” After stints in New Delhi, India and Tokyo, Japan (accompanying her husband, New York Times journalist Steven R. Weisman), where she continued to write for the Post as well as two books about the lives of women in each country, Bumiller joined the Times in 1995 as a metro reporter. She was later promoted to City Hall bureau chief before returning to the US capital as a White House correspondent on September 10, 2001. The next day’s infamous events dramatically changed the trajectory of her reporting from a domestic focus to an increasingly international one. In her current role as Washington bureau chief, her primary responsibility concerns overseeing daily operations and leading all news coverage from Washington, domestic and international. Her breadth of experience in the media industry made her an appropriate choice of speaker for the latest symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association – The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends. “This seminar is fascinating because I am very interested in the perspective of people from around the world on media and journalism,” said Bumiller. “I was fascinated by the question from the gentleman… who asked why we [the media] couldn’t just join with the government. Oh dear, that’s not going to work in the United States!...  “I was also interested in the question from someone who kept asking me, ‘Why don’t you feel pressure from the administration? Don’t you feel pressure from the White House and Trump?’…I kept on saying, ‘No’… I realized she didn’t necessarily believe me, but it’s just not a factor in the United States – at least not for my publication.” Mistakes can happen in reporting, but Bumiller maintains the Times is a “very competitive place” with “really smart people” who believe in independent journalism and getting at the truth. “It’s also just been the privilege of a lifetime,” says Bumiller. “I’ve travelled a lot for the Times. I’m now working with people on their stories and on their careers… It’s a constant invigorating education, and I really do mean it’s a privilege.”   The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends features as part of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA) multi-year series. You can capture highlights on social media using the hashtag #SSASA.
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The Art of Dialogue and International Exchange
Jing Xu at Salzburg Global Seminar
The Art of Dialogue and International Exchange
Mirabelle Morah and Oscar Tollast 
“When I was a student, I met a very good professor… In her classroom, she told us that if you want to do some research, the first thing you’ll need to do is [learn] where China was, where China is, [and] where China will be.” said Jing Xu, speaking at the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA). “I need to know more about China.” Why would someone wanting to learn about China come to an American Studies symposium? Xu is the vice director of the Communication and Culture Research Center and a professor at the School of Journalism at Peking University, in China, and the latest SSASA symposium was titled The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends. For Xu, learning about other countries and other cultures is just as important as learning more about China. She has spent more than 34 years at Peking University, first arriving as an undergraduate student. She earned a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. at the School of International Studies before transferring to the School of Journalism & Communication. Much of her research has focused on Chinese media, politics, public opinion, media governance, and health communication. In Salzburg, Xu was able to provide a unique perspective as the sole participant from China. But she could also reflect on her experiences in Japan, the UK, Sweden, Hong Kong, Belgium, and Italy. Xu is a firm believer in international exchange, having founded the Europe-China Dialogue in Media and Communications Summer School in 2013. The program is now in its seventh year, having held its latest meeting in Beijing, China in July 2019. It aims to provide a platform linking scholars from Europe and China to foster the generation of new ideas for a better global communication exchange. Xu says they want to broaden students’ perspectives. At the program, both professors and students present their own research. “After the presentation, professors – one Chinese professor [and] another European professor – will give [the students] comments to tell them how to modify, how to craft their thesis. That’s very helpful. We call it dialogue,” explains Xu. “In some conferences, the students have a rare chance to get more feedback from professors – maybe several sentences. But in our… program each one will do [a] 15-minute presentation and get feedback from different professors. So, [it] almost lasts one hour.” Xu says last year’s program received more than 60 proposals, more than double the number of places available. It was “the biggest success” for the program to date, according to Xu. Changes were made to the program as it sought to provide more theoretical and methodological guidance for Ph.D. students, with a greater focus on scientific training. Xu is clearly proud of how the program has progressed. “I feel happy. [This is] the first time that people hear my story about the summer school.” Xu has attended a number of different international events in her career, including those where thousands of people come together. Events like this, however, make it difficult to have real dialogue, according to Xu. Thankfully, it is a different story in Salzburg. “People are encouraged to speak, have different in-depth dialogue and conversation,” she explains. “So, that’s very, very interesting and [a] benefit for me… I also have a chance to put forward my ideas… To some extent, I’m timid. I don’t want to speak too much, but here, I feel more and more optimistic [and] confident with my English… I think when I say something, people are really interested in that.” The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends features as part of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA) multi-year series. You can capture highlights on social media using the hashtag #SSASA.
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Using Film and Photos to Understand Complex Issues
Documentary Filmmaker Azza Cohen speaking at  Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA)
Using Film and Photos to Understand Complex Issues
Mirabelle Morah and Oscar Tollast 
“Journalism has really been rapidly evolving, and it’s exciting. I feel like this is an exciting time to be a visual storyteller,” said Azza Cohen, speaking at the latest symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association, The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends. Cohen, a documentary filmmaker and historian, is dedicated to storytelling in the public’s service. At the time of interview in Salzburg, she was working on her first feature film, The Last Statesman. The film centers on the life of political negotiator George Mitchell, who helped negotiate peace in Northern Ireland with the Belfast Agreement a.k.a. the “Good Friday Agreement” in 1998, and his relationship with conflict negotiators in different countries. It is a film rooted in Cohen’s academic and visual interests, and one she hopes will “highlight positive examples of negotiation and examples of statesmanship which I think are really missing from our political conversation, definitely in America.” “I’ve always felt – and I think especially after the 2016 [US] election – that young people don’t feel inspired by politicians and that young people don’t really see negotiation happening on a scale of the national conversation or international conversations.  “I think particularly as a Jewish person, you learn about the conflict in the Middle East, and you learn about what’s happening in Israel and Palestine, and all you see is people talking past each other. You don’t really see attempts at genuine negotiation… You have to come to the table and then decide on what gets left behind or what is a priority,” said Cohen. Cohen has worked in documentary filmmaking since graduating from the National University of Ireland in 2017, where she obtained a master’s degree in culture and colonialism, and history. Before this, she earned a bachelor’s degree in history at Princeton University in New Jersey, USA, where one of her undergraduate thesis projects involved producing a multimedia study of racial segregation in St. Louis, Mo., USA. “I think there are ways to blend… moving images, photography, and the written word, which can give you a fuller picture of a community or an issue,” she says.  Cohen describes herself as a “big history nerd,” but it was only after attending Princeton that she encountered “how much of history informs we who are.” She said, “History is really amazing, and so many people don’t have access to understanding their own history… I think that movies and photography… can be a really great way to help people understand and be excited by history.” Moving images can be really empowering, according to Cohen, but they can also be exploitative. She said, “It’s important that we have these discussions, especially related to this seminar… [about] the ways that media can be very harmful. I think we’ve thought about it in a lot of political sense and a lot of ways that… headlines are harmful, and memes are harmful. But I also think that moving images can be harmful, and in conversations about violence or representations of minors or children, I think there’s just a lot to think about.” Cohen said the symposium in Salzburg continued to inspire her to consider how visual storytelling can look different – moving away from the traditional feature-length films shown at movie theaters and film festivals.  Reflecting on her experience at Salzburg Global Seminar, she says, “What is so deeply meaningful to me is the way that this place was founded. That it was founded after World War II with an eye towards restoring the idea that you have to restore Europe through intellectual, cultural, political exchange and not just rebuilding the roads and fixing the buildings that were bombed.  “I think that’s so incredibly profound.”  She adds: “What we’re missing in politics, in academia [and] in so many things is this basic idea of civility and decency, and that exchanging ideas with people you don’t know and with people from different countries is the very foundation of how we live in a world that makes sense and treats people well… To be a part of that tradition that was started in 1947 is such an honor, honestly… “I think this subject matter is particularly resonant [and] particularly timely… I just think it’s really important to constantly be thinking about the media and the effect of technology because we don’t have any other choice… I feel very much inspired and terrified about the state of things. But the only way that you can make yourself feel better is by doing something. So, you might as well be equipped and know from experts and be able to look at things sort of dispassionately and then act passionately.” The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends features as part of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA) multi-year series. You can capture highlights on social media using the hashtag #SSASA.
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The Need for Critical Thinking and Co-operation
Pavel Koshkin at Salzburg Global Seminar
The Need for Critical Thinking and Co-operation
Mirabelle Morah and Oscar Tollast 
To err is human, but journalists who make errors in today’s climate receive little sympathy. For some critics, an honest mistake can be a sign of a hidden agenda, or proof of “fake news” and a corrupt media. The reality is slightly different. Our decision-making is affected when we work under pressure, and it is no different for reporters, according to Russian journalist Pavel Koshin. “You have an assignment from an editor... You have to write it [and] come up with a story for one hour. It should be analytical, in-depth. You have to interview a couple of people, two or three. It’s crazy, I think.” Koshin, a research fellow at the Institute for US and Canadian Studies at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia, has experience in this field. While working as a journalist, Koshkin covered topics related to US-Russia relations for several Russian media outlets, including RBC Daily, Russia Direct, Cyber World, and more. He currently contributes to Forbes.ru. “Mistakes are not fake news, and to prevent these mistakes, I think all American newspapers and Russian ones should establish [a] good department of fact-checkers – a separate department. It’s a separate profession because a staff writer can write well, can interview well, can just collect information well, but there should be a fact-checker. It’s [a] top priority.” Koshkin spoke while attending the 17th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA), The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends. As one would expect, “fake news” was a popular topic of discussion. During the symposium, Koshkin took part in a panel discussion on the issue of fake news and the media. In Koshkin’s opinion, fake news is a “very important” problem that requires our attention. Fake news, he says, is “a deliberate attempt to spread falsehood(s), false information for the sake of manipulation, and this information is distributed by groups of interest by certain stakeholders. I don’t know who they are, but they pursue either political goals or corporate goals. What fake news is not, however, is propaganda. “Fake news is not propaganda. It’s a part of propaganda. Propaganda is a broader term; it might use fake news to achieve its goals." Koshkin developed his interest in the US as a junior in the journalism department at Moscow State University. He says, “I was crazy about American culture, movies, music, literature,” he remembers. “[I] attended a lot of lectures at the American Center in Moscow. They’re called ‘American Corners’ in Moscow. There is one in St. Petersburg, in Kazan, and I just attended every time they had lectures just to talk with native speakers.” In 2010, as a result of the Global Undergraduate Exchange Program, Koshkin received a scholarship to attend the Tennessee Technology University for one year. His experience deepened his interest in the nation. “I was exposed to American life, ordinary life, culture. I had an opportunity to travel a lot around the United States,” he reminisces.   As the years have gone by, Koshkin has further immersed himself in US-Russia relations. One of his primary goals now is to see how both countries can work together. Koshkin says, “I think with Russia, the US should be friends. I know it’s idealistic. I know it’s gullible today, but I don’t care whether it’s gullible or not. I believe it. This is me and nobody else… I really believe that the US and Russia should work together, or should minimize this distrust… We need people… who bring together two countries when their relations are in bad shape.” Improving those relations would partly depend on improving understanding – and thus reducing fake news. “We need to be mindful about the limits of [the] human brain: we have so much information that we are not able to process and, most importantly, understand. We live in abundance, but we are fed up with it. We have numerous sources of information on the Web, but we find ourselves lost in this ocean of data. Sometimes we even don’t know how to use it [in] a practical way. “Paradoxically, the more we get, the less we know. It is a paradox, which sometimes makes us more vulnerable to manipulation and fake news.” “What is to be done?” he asks. “We need to focus on critical thinking and sound skepticism (do not confuse [this] with nihilism), we need to be more painstaking and meticulous in nuances. The Devil is in the details.” The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends features as part of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA) multi-year series. You can capture highlights on social media using the hashtag #SSASA.
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The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends
People convene at Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, United States to protest Donald Trump's Immigration Ban. A man carries a placard which says, "I wish this were fake news."
The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends
 
Scholars, journalists, and professional leaders from around the world are convening in Salzburg today for the 17th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA). This year's symposium, The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends, will include thematic presentations, panel-led discussions, plus small in-depth discussion groups. The four-day event is taking place at Schloss Leopoldskron, the historic home of Salzburg Global Seminar, and features an array of high-profile speakers. Speakers include Elisabeth Bumiller, Washington Bureau chief, the New York Times; Edith Chapin, executive editor, NPR News; and Paul Mihailidis, associate professor of media studies at Emerson College's School of Communication. Ron Clifton, a retired associate vice president of Stetson University and retired counselor in the Senior Foreign Service of the United States, returns as chair for this year's symposium. Last year, Salzburg Global Seminar created The Ron Clifton Lecture in American Studies to celebrate Clifton's contribution toward American studies. Christopher Bigsby, a professor of American studies and director of the Arthur Miller Institute for American Studies at the University of East Anglia, delivered the inaugural lecture titled "Trying to Understand America." On Sunday, Reinhard Heinisch, head of the Department of Political Science at the University of Salzburg, will deliver the second Ron Clifton Lecture in American Studies. His talk is titled, "Questions of Lost Trust, Alternative Facts, Verification and Validity in America." His talk will be followed by a discussion and Q&A, moderated by Edith Chapin. During this year's symposium, participants will explore the role of the media in the United States and around the world. They'll focus on the significance of truth and verification, and they'll examine the future implications, looking at the role of the media in culture and democracy in the years to come. Key questions include: How has the American media landscape and the world's news consumption habits changed in America and abroad in past decades? What have been the main drivers of these changes? What appears to be the motive and purpose of those who are producing and publishing the news? Why do many Americans appear to have lost trust in the news media an how can the industry regain trust and remain objective in an age of "alternative facts"? How is the American media landscape influencing other countries' media markets and the image of America abroad and how, in turn, is America being influenced by its image in the world? How can the American media fulfill its communication and emerging political role as an institution of American democracy and how are the executive, legislature, and judiciary likely to react to this new political involvement? What does the future look like for the US media, its consumers, and its role in American culture and democracy? Marty Gecek, chair of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association, said, "I am looking forward to stimulating conversations with 53 individuals from 29 countries, to discuss the influence and impact of American media, both at home and abroad." The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends features as part of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA) multi-year series. You can capture highlights on social media using the hashtag #SSASA.
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Salzburg Global Seminar Celebrates 65th Anniversary of the First “American Studies Conference”
Program topics for the American Studies Conference held at Schloss Leopoldskron in 1944
Salzburg Global Seminar Celebrates 65th Anniversary of the First “American Studies Conference”
Oscar Tollast 
On this day in 1954, 40 professors of American studies from Europe and the United States were convening at Schloss Leopoldskron for the first “American Studies Conference.” It was a significant occasion which led to the establishment of the European Association for American Studies (EAAS). The three-day program, which ran from April 16 to April 19, sought to assess the “progress of teaching and the nature of research in American civilization in the various countries of Western Europe.” As the world continued to recover from the devastating conflict of World War II, the program in 1954 gave European scholars in American studies the opportunity to gain an overview of the state of scholarship both in the United States and in Europe. America’s pre-eminent scholars helped the Salzburg Seminar, as it was then known, to outline the most crucial issues which lay ahead for the profession. Dexter Perkins, then president of the Seminar, sent off letters asking various scholars for their thoughts. Contributors included Thomas A. Bailey, Daniel J. Boorstin, Foster Rhea Dulles, Scott Elledge, John Hope Franklin, Henry F. May, Arthur M. Schlesinger, and Henry Nash Smith. Boorstin, from the University of Chicago, suggested European scholars were “especially well qualified to ask embarrassing and refreshing questions” about American civilization and provided several ideas for Perkins to pursue. Meanwhile, Elledge, one of the three Harvard students who founded Salzburg Global Seminar in 1947 and had since moved to Carleton College, gave a few thoughts “on the spur of the moment.”  He suggested pursuing critical studies of aspects of American literature. Franklin, of Howard University, indicated “the American traveler in Europe” could be considered from numerous angles, as could the official and semi-official representatives of the United States in different European communities. Franklin would go onto receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1995 and was described by U.S. President Bill Clinton as “one of the most important American historians of the 20th century.” At that initial meeting, participants represented countries including Austria, the U.K., Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, U.S., and the former Yugoslavia. Program topics included “Problems and Techniques in the practical teaching of American Studies in Europe,” “European Research in American Studies, Facilities and Opportunities for American Studies Scholars,” “An American research library in Europe,” “The Role of the Salzburg Seminar,” and “Reports on the progress of American Studies” in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, and Scandinavia. By the end of the program, participants unanimously agreed that a European Association for American Studies should be organized and that newsletter should be published informing people with updates. In the first edition of the EAAS newsletter, published in 1955, a summary of the program was written by editor Professor Sigmund Skard, assistant editor Dr. D. R. Wightman, and secretary-treasurer of the Association Robert O. Mead, who also worked for Salzburg Seminar at the time. The three authors recognized several difficulties at a “first of its kind” conference, including a lack of visibility of existing work being undertaken in the field, an uneven representation both of countries and disciplines, and a lack of time to carefully study subjects. Despite this, all three men reached a positive conclusion about the program, agreeing “the conference as a whole was a definite success. The spirit of the delegates was excellent, and there was not the slightest friction of any kind. High-sounding declarations were few, but there was much exchange of factual information and sober argument. Valuable beginnings were made towards more organized efforts and better personal contacts…” Since 1954, the EAAS has continued to grow from strength to strength. As of January 2010, the number of Americanists represented through EAAS’s national associations reached 4,301. The EAAS has helped connect European Americanists and has “encouraged the study of and research in all areas of America culture and society.” EAAS conferences continue to be held every two years, attracting between 200 and 400 participants. Over the years, Salzburg Global Seminar has also continued to reaffirm its commitment to American studies. In 1994, coinciding with the 40th anniversary of the EAAS, Salzburg Global established the American Studies Center, which was directed by Ron Clifton. In 2004, Salzburg Global Seminar marked the 50th anniversary by launching the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA). Fifteen years later - yesterday, to be precise - SSASA published its latest report on its 16th symposium, Understanding America in the 21st Century: Culture and Politics. As stated in the latest report, “critical dialogue about American history, literature, cultural institutions, politics, economics, and law has played a vital role in our organization’s development and legacy. The Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association was founded in 2004 to continue this legacy.” A plaque which reads “Salzburg Seminar in American Studies” still adorns the entrance of Schloss Leopoldskron today. We are constantly reminded of our organization’s past, and we look forward to continuing addressing questions affecting American culture, society and politics at the next SSASA symposium in September, The Changing Role of the Media in American Life and Culture: Emerging Trends. For more information on the European Association for American Studies, please click on the following link: https://www.eaas.eu/
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Understanding America in the 21st Century: Culture and Politics
Understanding America in the 21st Century: Culture and Politics
Oscar Tollast 
On the 65th anniversary of the formation of the European Association of American Studies, the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association is delighted to publish a new report on Understanding America in the 21st Century: Culture and Politics. The report covers activities which took place at the 16th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association and was held at Salzburg Global Seminar in September 2018. The multi-disciplinary symposium, which shares the same name as the report, explored the sensitive intersect of culture and politics in America’s rapidly changing landscape. The four-day symposium brought together 53 Americanists, political scientists, and cultural and media professionals from 29 countries on five continents. Together, participants sought to understand how the lives of individuals and communities in 21st century America are being reshaped as a result of current social, political and cultural forces as well as America’s role in world affairs. Participants engaged with thematic presentations on populism, race, gender, and America and the world. They also took part in discussion groups which focused on American literature, film, and the United States Supreme Court. The symposium reached a successful conclusion with participants gaining a better awareness of the political, social, cultural, and institutional tensions existing within the United States at the time. This new report includes sections on rhetoric versus reality, forces of change, and faculty interviews. A transcript of the inaugural Ron Clifton Lecture on American Studies given by Christopher Bigsby, professor of American Studies and director of the Arthur Miller Institute for American Studies at the University of East Anglia, is also provided. Salzburg Global Seminar was founded in 1947 but was first known as the Salzburg Seminar in American Civilization. American Studies has played a vital role in the organization’s history and development. The Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association was established in 2004 to continue this legacy. Download the report as a PDF
This is a report of Understanding America in the 21st Century – Culture and Politics, the 16th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA) multi-year series.
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