The Risers - 1962 to 1989




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Jun 23, 2017
by Oscar Tollast and Nicole Bogart
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The Risers - 1962 to 1989

Founded as a place for young Europeans to learn about America, Salzburg Global Seminar has a long history of identifying not only those of prominence in their field but also those of great promise. During the Cold War years, the Seminar served as an important juncture on many Fellows’ professional journeys, especially for those who would take on roles in their countries’ democratic transitions.

Listed below are short profiles of Salzburg Global Fellows identified as part of "The Risers" group. These Fellows attended the Seminar between 1962 and 1989 and went on to achieve great things in their careers.

Jutta Limbach


Jutta Limbach attended a law session in 1961 as a trainee lawyer. She later credited her participation with helping to shape her thinking about law and federalism and noted that, as a German, it was the first time she had interacted with the international community. She returned over 30 years later for the session Personal Responsibility of Judges, by which time she had become the first woman to head Germany’s highest court. After stepping down from the constitutional court in 2002, she led the Goethe Institute, a government body promoting German language and culture around the world, and from 2003 until her death, she headed the Limbach Commission, which settled disputes over art seized by the Nazis.

Mugur Isarescu


When Mugur Isarescu attended sessions on economics in 1975 and 1981, it is unlikely he could predict what future awaited his country, Romania, or himself. Like many other Fellows, Isarescu has played a key role in his country, post-Communism. He has served as the Governor of the National Bank of Romania continuously since 1990 (with the exception of 11 months as Prime Minister in 1999), and describes his Seminar experiences and connections, gaining access to information on free-market economies, as being “absolutely critical” in his work to transform Romania into a free-market system. Speaking about his experience, Mugur said: “Everything I knew about Western economic systems I had learned at the Salzburg Seminar.”

Miklos Marschall


Communist Europe had few nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) when Miklos Marschall attended one of the Seminar’s first sessions on the role of NGOs in 1986 as a young lecturer from Hungary. Marschall became an early advocate of the third sector in the region, and credits the Seminar as being “directly responsible for the introduction and establishment of NGOs in Central and East Europe.” He founded CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation, and returned to the Seminar as faculty and chair of other civil society-focused sessions. From 1991-1994 he served as deputy mayor of Budapest, where he founded a number of programs to promote activities in culture and education. He now works for Transparency International and serves on the boards of several non-profits.


The Seminar has always sought to bring together both those who are of prominence and those who show promise in their fields. Many Fellows who showed promise in their early years have since risen to prominence – and maintained their connection to Salzburg by returning as faculty.

Shoshana Berman

S.192 (’79); S.235 (’84); S.535 (’14)
Judge, Trial Court, District of Rehovot; later Judge on the District Court of Appeals in Tel Aviv

Jolanda Brunetti Goetz

S.92 (’64); S.321 (’95)
Political science student; later first woman in Italy to be admitted to the Diplomatic Service

Robert Butler

S.223 (’83); S.357 (’98); S.369 (’99)
Director, National Institute of Aging and Nobel Laureate; coined the term “Productive Aging” at the Seminar

Colette Flesch

S.125 (’69); S.347 (’97)
Young MEP for Luxembourg; later Deputy Prime Minister of Luxembourg and Director-General of the European Commission

Brendan Gill

S.155 (’74); S.205 (’81)
Author, film and drama critic for The New Yorker; later chair of the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts

Anker Jørgensen

S.50 (’57); S.208 (’81)
Trade unionist; later Prime Minister of Denmark

Alois Mock

S.64 (’59); S.208 (’81)
Civil servant; later Foreign Minister of Austria

Ewald Nowotny

S.98 (’68); S.462 (’09); S.478 (’11); S.492 (’12)
Doctoral student; now Governor of the Austrian National Bank

Jacek Saryusz-Wolski

S.281 (’90); S.303 (’93)
Associate Professor, University of Lodz; later first Polish plenipotentiary for European integration and then an MEP and Vice-President of the European Parliament

Dries Van Agt

S.99 (’65); S.156 (’74); S.290 (’91)
Lawyer and civil servant; later Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1977-1982)

Ladislav Venys

S.282 (’90); S.322 (’95)
Senior urban planner, Czechoslovak Institute for Regional and Physical Planning; later executive director of the Center for Democracy and Free Enterprise in Prague.

Franz Vranitzsky

S.86 (’63); Peace Symposium (’98)
Junior staff member, Austrian National Bank; later Chancellor of Austria

Salzburg Global Seminar and the United States Supreme Court

The Seminar has enjoyed a long relationship with the United States Supreme Court, with several sitting justices serving on the faculty of law sessions. Two current judges, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer, also attended prior to their appointments to the bench. US Supreme Court judges who have served on the Salzburg faculty include:

Ruth Bader Ginsburg

S.232 (’84); S.359 (’98); Cutler 5 (’14)
Associate Justice, 1993 onwards

Harry Blackmun

S.177 (’77); S.276 (’89)
Associate Justice, 1970-94

Warren E. Burger

S.136 (’71); S.199 (’80); S.215 (’82)
Chief Justice, 1969-86

William J. Brennan Jr.

S.263 (’87)
Associate Justice, 1956-90

Stephen Breyer

S.184 (’78); S.264 (’87); S.307 (’93); S.349 (’97);
S.370 (’99); Cutler 2 (’11)
Associate Justice, 1994 onwards

Anthony Kennedy

S.269 (’88); S.293 (’91); ISP 09 (’05); ISP 15 (’06);
SAC 01 (’07); ISP 28 (’08); ISP 34 (’09); ISP 59 (’13);
GCP 64 (’14); Cutler 6 (’16)
Associate Justice, 1988 onwards

Sandra Day O’Connor

S.224 (’83); S.299 (’92); S.443 (’07); Cutler 1 (’09);
Cutler 2 (’11); Cutler 3 (’12)
Associate Justice, 1981-2006

William Rehnquist

S.192 (’79)
Associate Justice, 1972-86; Chief Justice, 1986-2005

Potter Stewart

S.118 (’68)
Associate Justice, 1958-81

Byron White

S.130 (’70)
Associate Justice, 1962-93

Since 2009, many of these Salzburg Fellows have continued to show their support through membership of the advisory council of the Lloyd N. Cutler Center on the Rule of Law and hosting the annual Cutler Lecture in the Court.