UKRAINE is a former Soviet Republic. The people in the Soviet Union were provided with the official Soviet view of the Nazis as, above all, enemies of communism and with the war as less about the Holocaust and more about the heroism of the Russian people.

The state of Holocaust education in UKRAINE is similar to that of Russia. Since the early 1990s, World War II and the Holocaust have been part of the secondary school curricula, and in 2000, following the Stockholm Forum, the Ukraine Ministry of Education and Science “decided to recommend the Universities to introduce the course of Holocaust history in Europe and Ukraine. read more

Further, since 2006, high school graduation exam questions have included the Holocaust.  However, the practical effect of such recommendations has been limited by the fact that there are neither enough trained teachers,  nor do they have the appropriate curriculum to teach the subject. Thus, Anatoly Podolsky argues, “in the modern Ukraine, we have a situation, when the State and the Ministry create no formal hurdles for Holocaust teaching; however, the real possibilities … are also non-existent.”

Just as in Russia, most of the momentum for Holocaust education has come from NGOs, most prominently the “Tkuma” All-Ukrainian Center for Holocaust Studies (hereafter, Tkuma) and the Ukraine Center for Holocaust Studies (UCHS). Tkuma mostly publishes books on the Holocaust, particularly as they pertain to the persecution of Jews and ethnic Ukrainians. Typically, the organization releases about a dozen books a year, including textbooks, memoirs, and other primary source collections. Igor Shchupak’s textbook on Ukrainian history, used by about 160,000 school students, includes an entire unit on the Holocaust. Further, Tkuma is “working to create the largest museum of Jewish history and the Holocaust in post-Soviet territory,” a museum that opened in October 2012 in Dnepropetrovsk.  Since the UCHS’ inception in 2002, it has partnered with foreign NGOs to promote Holocaust education. With the Anne Frank House, the UCHS developed a program called “Tolerance and Holocaust Education in Ukraine,” and with the Visual History Foundation of the University of Southern California, the UCHS developed multimedia resources ‘to accompany the film Nazvy svoie im’ia (Spell Your Name), a documentary about the Holocaust in Ukraine.” The center has trained 3,000 teachers of students ages 14–18 in the use of these resources.  It received funding from the OSCE to disseminate teaching materials on “discrimination, racism, and antisemitism.”  Finally, the UCHS cooperated with the Euro-Asian Jewish Congress to run a teacher training program called “Lessons of the Holocaust, Lessons of Tolerance” in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, and Uzbekistan.

Finally, Father Patrick Desbois in partnership with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has investigated sites of mass shootings and mass graves in Ukraine. The president of the research organization Yahad-in-Unum, Father Desbois has published The Holocaust by Bullets: A Priest’s Journey to Uncover the Truth behind the Murder of 1.5 Million Jews. In September 2011, an exhibition of Desbois’ research opened for the first time in Ukraine.


GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES ON HOLOCAUST EDUCATION: Trends, Patterns, and Practices,  a publication of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and  the Salzburg Global Seminar, 2013
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GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES ON HOLOCAUST EDUCATION: Country updates 2014, published ahead of the Salzburg Global Seminar session Holocaust and Genocide Education: Sharing Experience Across Borders

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Archival Documents


European Holocaust Research Infrastructure

“Tkuma” All-Ukrainian Center for Holocaust Studies

Ukraine Center for Holocaust Studies

UNESCO:  Why Teach About the Holocaust?, 2013

Anne Frank House


Bartov, Omer. Erased: Vanishing Traces of Jewish Galicia in Present-day Ukraine. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge : Belknap Press, 2004.

Ivanova, Elena. “Ukranian High School Students’ Understanding of the Holocaust.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 18, 3 (Winter 2004): 402-410.

Kuznetsov, Anatoli. Babi Yar. New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1970.

Lower, Wendy. Nazi Empire- Building and the Holocaust in Ukraine. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Podolsky, Anatoly. “Holocaust Teaching in Modern Ukraine: Topicality and Current State.” Forum 21: European Journal on Child and Youth Research 3. (Jun 2009).




Elena Ivanova, V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University, Head of the Chair of General Psychology


Elena brought back the knowledge she gained from the Session to her students in Ukraine. She was in the process of writing a paper based on the materials and ideas she gained from the Session.