Past Program


Where a person stands in the labor market – such as whether they have a job that pays enough to live on – is key to their financial security and wellbeing. And that person’s wellbeing throughout their life is also crucial to employers, businesses and the economy as a whole. Inclusive economic growth has the potential to be mutually beneficial to business, economic development and health. Yet, joined-up strategies between businesses and health and economic policymakers are lacking.

Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy data can provide a barometer into overall population health and the disparities that exist between different groups. There are entrenched health inequalities between and within countries that are unacceptable. As an example, across the UK in 2014 to 2016, the gap in healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth between local areas with highest and lowest average HLE was 18.4 years for females and 15.6 years for males[1].

It can be argued that health inequalities (and other socio-economic inequalities) represent a failure of government to maximize the social and economic potential of its population. The health of a population has a complex, multi-directional relationship with other social and economic outcomes. It is widely accepted that income, access to education and work have an impact on health outcomes and that there is a social gradient in health (the lower a person’s social position, the worse his or her health).

There is a growing recognition that the proceeds of economic growth should be shared more equally across the population, i.e. that growth should be more inclusive. Such a strategy has the potential to be mutually beneficial to business and economic development sectors but also health. For example, the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) virtuous cycle of inclusive growth[2] describes a self-reinforcing cycle in which rising economic output and social inclusion are mutually supportive. The WEF also argues there is no inherent trade-off in economic policymaking between the promotion of social inclusion and that of long-term economic growth and competitiveness.

Through this program, we want to explore the role that business should have as the driver of the economy in creating more inclusive economies and the extent to which the role of business in improving health should go beyond the individual employment relationship and move to systems-level thinking as envisaged by the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We are also interested in the role of statutory authorities and the role that policies and legislative and fiscal frameworks have in supporting more inclusive economies.

A further line of inquiry will examine the future demographic, social and economic trends that are changing the world of work and the ways in which the population will interact with businesses as consumers. There has been high profile policy discussion on the role of automation, the gig economy and universal basic income. However, more could be done to fully understand the impact that these trends will have on our health and in turn, what that might mean for society (particularly for deprived populations), the economy and individual businesses. Now is the time to use the coming changes to shape policies to promote inclusivity and improve health.

At the heart of the program is the desire to create opportunities for dialogue across distinct sectors. The SDGs provide a framework for cross-sector action and the translation of benefits from one sector to another.


This highly-interactive program, held at Schloss Leopoldskron, home of Salzburg Global Seminar, will prioritize opportunities for cross-border sharing and learning. 

The program will commence at 3.30pm on Monday, April 29, 2019 with an introductory session and a welcome dinner. The formal sessions will finish by the end of the day on Thursday, May 2. There will be an optional gala dinner and accommodation will be provided on the Thursday evening for those departing on the Friday. 

Participants will focus on building new insights and aggregating perspectives and experiences from relevant sectors, areas of expertise and regions. Working groups, each with a thematic and/or country focus, will prepare recommendations for action by different target audiences. 


For this program, Salzburg Global Seminar seeks to bring together cross-sector and cross-generational change-makers to tackle complex challenges and bridge the worlds of business, health and economic development.

Participants of this program will form an international group of country teams drawn from diverse sectors – policymakers, business representatives, academics and representatives from civil society – to explore the intersection between economic development and health.


Over the course of the four-day program, participants will address the following questions:

  • What role do businesses play in promoting inclusive economies within the communities in which they are based? To what extent is this role health enhancing?
  • What policies, legislative and fiscal frameworks have been effective in promoting more inclusive economies?
  • Who should be responsible for closing regional gaps in opportunity? How can local areas best take advantage of emerging employment opportunities as a route to more inclusive economies? 
  • What will demographic, consumer and technological trends mean for the way we work? What in turn will this mean for our health (i.e. how will trends affecting the future of work in turn affect our health)? How can we best use these changing trends to design in health enhancing policies?
  • How can we ensure that policies support individuals to flourish at different stages of the life course? And how can we plan for emerging trends that will change the way in which young people today might experience the world of work as they age? 
  • How do we ensure that adoption of changing and new jobs roles (and the loss of existing roles) due to technological change improve health and do not exacerbate existing health inequalities? What can be done to address these risks and what can be done to support areas already experiencing disadvantage? 
  • How are different countries seeking to achieve alignment across sectors with reference to the SDGs? What policies or programs are the most effective? What does this mean for organizations or sectors doing this in practice? What capabilities do we need to build in the system to make the most of the systemic interconnected approach that the SDGs encourage?


This program will seek to:

  • Facilitate dialogue and continued cross-border learning across a diverse range of sectors including those with a responsibility for the public’s health, economic development, poverty reduction and business.
  • Identify best practice in order promote better strategic alignment between initiatives designed to promote inclusive growth and initiatives designed to promote better health and reduce health inequalities.
  • Develop a Salzburg Statement and other policy recommendations in relation to the future of work and its impact on health.

Virtual Library

Primary Readings:

Byrne, Liam, MP (editor). The Future of Work for the People we Serve. The Parliamentary Network on The World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Ten key challenges for spreading risks and sharing rewards of automation as new technology transforms the future of work.

How Can Businesses Contribute to People’s Health? A guide for leaders. Blueprint for Better Business and The Health Foundation, 2018. A guide for business leaders which highlights the ways business can be a force for good in society by bringing health into the conversation.

How Local Industrial Strategies can deliver inclusive growth. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2019. JRF introduces their definition of inclusive growth and its application to UK's Industrial Strategy White Paper (2017). They utilize the white paper’s framework to draw out the links between living standards and economic prosperity.

Inclusive growth in action: Snapshots of a new economy. Royal Society of the Arts, 2019. Provides practical examples and case studies of initiatives across the world that have had success in promoting inclusive growth.

McCartney, G. et al, The Causes of the Causes: A Systematic Review of Reviews of the Impact of Political Economy on Population Health, 2018. Overarching review around political economic choices and health outcomes.

Nobody left behind: Maximising the health benefits of an inclusive local economy. Local Government Association, 2018. Evidences the link between local economic prosperity and health. Outlines a toolbox for local authorities to draw from and presents seven case studies from across England demonstrating its effectiveness.

Pissarides, Sir Christopher and Anna Thomas. The Future of Good Work: The foundation of a modern moral economy. A discussion paper. Institute for the Future of Work. Makes the case that the reduction of socio-economic inequalities is society’s most pressing challenge and, focusing on the UK, presents the future of good work as the best approach to reallocating resources.

Work for a brighter Future. Global Commission on the Future of Work. International Labor Organization, 2019. Among the key issues considered by the Commission are new forms of work, the institutional ramifications of the changing nature of work, lifelong learning, greater inclusivity and gender equality, the measurement of work and human well-being, and the role of universal social protection in a stable and just future of work.

Additional Readings:

Act Now to Build a Future that Works for All. OECD Employment Outlook 2019.

Ahmed, Amer S. and others. Demographic Change and Development. A Global Typology. Policy Research Working Paper 7893. World Bank Group, November 2016. This paper addresses the latest typology of demographic transition and its current and potential impact on national economies.

Ambar, Nayaran, and others. Fair Progress? Economic Mobility Across Generations Around the World. World Bank Group, 9 May, 2018. A global study that analyses new data on social and economic mobility over the last 50 years. It identifies challenges and opportunities for policy and action to break the cycle of poverty.

Anchor Mission Playbook, Rush University Medical Center. Version 2.0., June 2017. Outlines the case of the Rush University Medical Centre as an anchor institution in its community and gives recommendations to help other hospitals accelerate their own efforts to drive institutional alignment with community needs.

Centre for Progressive Policy (CPP) Diagnosis Critical report and inquiry (May 2018 - ongoing). The impact of place on life expectancy, mental disorders and unplanned hospital admission in the context of England’s current financial pressures.

Dellot, Benedict, and others. The Four Futures of Work. Coping with uncertainty in an age of radical technology. RSA Action and Research Centre, 2019.

Feigl Andrea, Scott Ratzan, and others. Underinvestment in Global Health – examining the potential of innovative finance to close the looming NCD investment gap. Harvard.

Fuchs Tarlovsky, Alan, and others. Is Tobacco Taxation Regressive? Evidence on Public Health, Domestic Resource Mobilization, and Equity Improvements, The World Bank, 1 April, 2019.

Greater Manchester Independent Prosperity Review.

Harkavy, Ira. Engaging Urban Universities as Anchor Institutions for Health Equity. American Journal of Public Health, December, 2016. The potential role of universities in contributing to reducing healthy inequity in the urban communities they share. 

Healthcare Anchor Network

Health 2050: Four scenarios for human-driven health and freedom of choice. Demos Helsinki, 2016. Report that presents four future scenarios that illustrate how overall perceived health in society can be doubled without increasing the total health costs.

Heymann, David. Healthy Nations, Sustainable Economies: How Innovation Can Better Ensure Health for All. G20 Health and Development Partnership, March 2019.

Inclusive Growth Commission Final Report. RSA, 2017. Proposes four key sets of recommendations for putting inclusive growth at the heart of public policy and finance: Place-based industrial strategies; A fundamental reset of the relationship between Whitehall and the town hall; Inclusive growth at the heart of public investment; and making inclusive growth our working definition of economic success.

Jamison, Dean T., and others. Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation. The Lancet, 3 December, 2013. Outlines an investment framework developed to dramatically improve health gains by 2035 worldwide.

Kestel, Dévora. Mental health in the workplace. Word Health Organization, 22 January, 2019. WHO position on global guidance for mental health in the workplace.

Kramer, Mark R. and Michael E. Porter. Creating Shared Value: how to reinvent capitalism - and unleash a wave of innovation and growth. Harvard Business Review, January-February 2011. Detailed analysis of the capitalist supply chain and how it can be integrated to provide higher levels of socio- and environmental-economic integration, as well as improve efficiency in a sustainable way.

Lange, Glenn-Marie, and others. The Changing Wealth of Nations 2018 : Building a Sustainable Future. World Bank Group, 2018. A book targeting policy makers that reviews global and regional wealth trends over the past two decades, discusses new work on human capital in development policy and outlines how elements of natural capital should be incorporated into wealth accounts.

Lyytimäki, Jari and others. Policy Brief: Finland aims to become a sustainable development leader. Demos Helsinki, Syke. 10/2016. Key findings and recommendation from the Avian 2030 projects conducted by the Finnish Environment Institute and Demos Helsinki, identifying pain points and success stories of sustainable development in Finland.

Marquez, Patricio V. Healthier Workplaces=Healthy Profits. The World Bank. Investigating In Health, News and Views in Health Development, 22 January, 2017. United States debate around how to change a health system that is geared to treat illnesses to one that focuses on prevention, and how companies can contribute to this by improving employee health.

Marquez, Patricio V, and others. Making Mental Health a Global Priority. Cerebrum, 16 August, 2016. The global physical, social, and economic burden of mental illness, alongside the evidence base for prevention in the workplace, technological solutions and cross-sector approaches.

Marquez, Patricio V. The case for physical and mental wellness programs in the workplace. The World Bank. Investigating In Health, News and Views in Health Development, 28 September, 2017. The case for a person-centred model of workplace wellness with a view to build broader social resilience during current socio-economic transition.

Marquez, Patricio V. On Public Health and Medical Care Systems : Challenges and Options – Collected Blogs and Briefs. The World Bank. 1 December, 2018. Collection of blogs posted between 2011 and 2018 and an opinion article published in 2005. Outlines current issues and trends in global health.

Naik, Yannish; Baker, Peter et al. The macro-economic determinants of health and health inequalities—umbrella review protocol. Systematic Review, 2017. Conceptualizes the economy as a complex system made up of underlying approaches, finance, labour, markets, regulation, balance between private/public and third sectors, and production/consumption/distribution. Details the methods for an umbrella review to explore the macro-economic factors, strategies, policies and interventions that affect health outcomes and inequalities.

Nugent, Rachel and others. Investing in non-communicable disease prevention and management to advance the Sustainable Development Goals. The Lancet, 4 April, 2018. Assessment of the SDGs through the lens of non-communicable disease reduction.

Patel, Vikram, and others. The Lancet Commission on global mental health and sustainable development. The Lancet, 10 October, 2018. Proposes that the global mental agenda should be expanded from a focus on reducing the treatment gap to improving the mental health of whole populations and reducing the global burden of mental disorders by addressing gaps in prevention and quality of care.

Policy Position: Living and Working Well. The Association of Directors of Public Health. 2018. The ADPH present their position on the relationship between work and wellbeing, and how policy can be mobilised to improve both in the UK through addressing current and projected challenges.

Prosperity and Justice: A plan for the new economy-Executive summary. IPPR Commission on Economic Justice, 2018. The product of a two-year enquiry into the UK economy, the final report of the IPPR Commission on Economic Justice presents a 10-part plan for economic reform to achieve prosperity and justice together.

Ratzan, Scott, and others. Guiding Principles for Multisector Engagement for Sustainable Health (MESH). M-RCBG Associate Working Paper No. 106, 2019.

Schwab, Klaus. The Fourth Industrial Revolution. World Economic Forum, 2016. Outlines the current period of change and its potential ramifications. This book looks deeply at the future that is unfolding today and how we might take collective responsibility to ensure it is a positive one for all of us.

Seifer, Sarina. Higher Education as Catalysts: Building a Culture of Health on Campus and in Communities. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, July 2018. Highlights the role of colleges and universities in promoting health and wellbeing, both on campus and in their surrounding communities. The report features the work of The Democracy Collaborative on furthering higher education institutions’ roles as anchor institutions.

Sladek, Emily. The Transformative Power of Anchor Institutions. Urban and Metropolitan Universities. Vol 30, Nr. 1, 2019. Complete Issue.Explores the challenges faced by anchor institutions in consciously and intentionally adopting an anchor mission, leveraging all available institutional and operational resources for community benefit.

Task Force on Fiscal Policy for Health. Bloomberg Philanthropies.

The Human Capital Project. World Bank, 11 October, 2018. Addresses significant gaps in human capital investment to raise awareness of the costs of inaction in a rapidly changing world.

The World Development Report 2019: The Changing Nature of Work. World Bank Group. An analysis of how the nature of work is changing as a result of technological advances. Makes the case for human capital investment as a priority for governments, as well as enhancing social protection.

Umeda, Maki, and others. Does an advantageous occupational position make women happier in contemporary Japan? Findings from the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity. SSM Population Health, 26 October, 2015.

Umeda, Maki, and others. Effect of socioeconomic conditions on health care utilization in marital violence: a cross-sectional investigation from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood. International Journal for Equity in Health, 28 February, 2017.

Universalism in the Next Era: Moving Beyond Redistribution. Next Era Papers. Demos Helsinki, 2019. Assesses the utility and limitations of universalism in the post-industrial and post-fossil-fuel era to promote a sense of belonging and fairness.

Work 2040, Scenarios for the future of work. Demos Helsinki/Demos Effect, 2017. Three possible futures are presented that conceptualize the importance of ensuring the future of good work, and the opportunities for action and choice they present.


Leena Alanko
Senior Consultant, Demos Helsinki, Finland
Virginia Arnold
Senior Staffer, World Health Organization, Switzerland
Miriam Brooks
Intern, The Health Foundation, UK
Edward Cox
Director for People, Power & Place, RSA, United Kingdom
Lisa Dale-Clough
Head of Enterprise Policy, Greater Manchester Combined Authority (GMCA), United Kingdom
Sarah Deas
Director, Co-operative Development Scotland, United Kingdom
Timothy Elwell-Sutton
Assistant Director of Strategic Partnerships (Healthy Lives), The Health Foundation, United Kingdom
Andrea Feigl
Visiting Scientist and Health Economist, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health; Senior Health Economist, Microclinic International, USA
Ted Howard
Co-Founder and President, The Democracy Collaborative, USA
Vibeke Jenny Koushede
Senior Researcher, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark
Hiroko Kurogoshi
Manager, Health and Global Policy Institute, Japan
Paul Litchfield
Chair, What Works Centre for Wellbeing, United Kingdom
Patricio V Marquez
Lead Public Health Specialist, World Bank Group, USA
Yohei Matsuoka
Director, Member of the Board, RIZAP Investment, Japan
Clements McCartney
Policy and Content Co-coordinator, Shared Societies Project, an initiative of the World Leadership Alliance-Club de Madrid, United Kingdom
Des McNulty
Assistant Vice-Principal for Economic Development and Civic Engagement, Dean for Knowledge Exchange and Public Policy, University of Glasgow, UK
Lisa Morgan
Technical Officer - Health Actuary, International Labour Organization, Switzerland
Stephen Muers
Trustee, Friends Provident Foundation, UK
Fabrice Murtin
Head of Section, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), France
Yannish Naik
Senior Policy Fellow, The Health Foundation, United Kingdom
Aleksi Neuvonen
Co-founder, Demos Helsinki, Finland
Joanna Nurse
Strategic Advisor, InterAction Council, UK
Shinichiro Okazaki
Senior Deputy Director, Healthcare Industries Division, Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI), Japan
Nick Pahl
CEO, Society of Occupational Medicine (SOM), UK
Norman Pickavance
CEO, Tomorrow's Company, UK
Sarah Price
Executive Lead for Population Health & Commission, Greater Manchester Health and Social Care Partnership, UK
Scott Ratzan
Senior Fellow, Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government, USA
Susannah Robinson
Consultant, World Health Organization, UK
Tessie San Martin
President and Chief Executive officer, Plan International USA
Catherine Sermon
Interim People Campaigns Director, Business in the Community (BITC), UK
David Shepherd
Director of Regeneration and Property, Barnsley Metropolitan Borough Council, UK
Catarina Tully
Founder, School of International Futures (SOIF), UK
Maki Umeda
Professor, Research Institute of Nursing Care for People and Community, University of Hyogo, Japan
Justin Varney
Director of Public Health, Birmingham City Council, United Kingdom
Franz von Roenne
Senior GIZ Manager and Expert in International Cooperation on Health Systems and Social Protection, Germany
Jennifer Wallace
Head of Policy, Carnegie UK Trust, UK
Ziga Zarnic
Manager, Inclusive Growth Division, OECD, France