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Baroness Usha Prashar Warns Liberal Democracy is in “a Desperate State”
Baroness Usha Prashar with Stephen Salyer and Clare Shine (Credit: Salzburg Global Seminar/Rebecca Rayne)
Baroness Usha Prashar Warns Liberal Democracy is in “a Desperate State”
Sarah Sexton 
“It is not an exaggeration to say that liberal democracy is in a desperate state,” said Baroness Usha Prashar, speaking at Salzburg Global Seminar’s fourth Palliser Lecture. The audience, made up of Salzburg Global Fellows, board members, and supporters, gathered in London on March 16 would likely have agreed with the crossbench member of the House of Lords. Baroness Prashar, one of the UK’s most experienced policy advisors, pointed to the election of US President Donald Trump and Central Europe’s populist revolt against the European Union as evidence of a shift toward “illiberal democracies.”  In her lecture, titled “Democracy and Civil Society – A Shrinking Space?”, Prashar said: “Political regimes may be based on electoral politics, but the rule of law, minority rights, freedom of the press, and other liberal protections are in danger.”  Prashar warned against dismissing such events as temporary outpourings of populism. “We must not hunker down and think this is an aberration which will pass... Freedoms once lost are difficult to regain. We must understand causes and develop strategies to respond to them.” Prashar underscored the importance of democracy not only to ensure free elections, but also to protect minorities from the tyranny of the majority and to value dissent, dialogue, and participation.  Such democracy, Prashar said, depends on lively civil society. Civil society organizations must have the space and the ability to speak out, organize, and act together to fulfill their roles, be it as promoters of democracy, a watchdog holding authorities to account, a humanitarian actor, a partner in implementing government policy, or a catalyst for development.  Prashar reflected on the program series she launched with Salzburg Global Seminar in the early 1990s around civil society and democracy. As oppressive regimes collapsed and Cold War-era bipolarity faded, the role of non-governmental organizations and civil society was seen as crucial in building new emerging democracies.  “It was at that time that Civicus: World Alliance for Citizen Participation was founded,” Prashar said. “Its first Secretary General, Miklos Marschall, was an active participant in this program, and I am pleased that the current Secretary General, Danny Sriskandarajah, is here tonight.”  Marschall attended one of Salzburg Global’s first sessions on the role of NGOs as a young lecturer from Hungary. He became an early advocate of the third sector and credits Salzburg Global as being “directly responsible for the introduction and establishment of NGOs in Central and East Europe.”
View full set on Flickr As the state-dominated regimes of communist Eastern Europe receded, civil society organizations emerged as a powerful and influential force on the world stage, according to Prashar, influencing public opinion and effectively harnessing the communication revolution to expand their reach. In the 2000s, for example, the world witnessed a surge in the mobilizing power of civil society and the impact of digital campaigning as the uprisings unfolded across the Middle East and North Africa in 2011.  “Now the gains of the 1990s and 2000s appear to be under threat or are being reversed,” lamented Prashar. “Disillusionment with politics is rife, and many democracies are sliding toward autocracy.”  Institutions of democratic systems have come to be seen as dysfunctional, Prashar said, pointing to political gridlock, ideological polarization, and gerrymandering in the United States as an example.  Prashar suggested the consequences of capitalism and financial downturns have led to a crisis of inequality – manifesting in decreasing social mobility and diverging economic fortunes – which has compounded public disillusionment and spurred support for anti-establishment parties.  “To me, this is a wake-up call,” Prashar said. “Concern and outrage is not enough. We must understand the causes and develop strategies to respond to them.”  Prashar offered some examples of positive developments in civil society, including increasing public scrutiny toward technology platforms that spread extremist or false content with no regard for public interest.  She referred to a trust barometer produced by Edelman that recorded a recent plunge in trust for social media and an increase in public support for more traditional media.  “Citizens are also organizing and mobilizing in new and creative ways to defend civic freedoms, fight for social justice and equality, and to push back populism,” Prashar said, noting that civil society had advocated successfully for progressive new laws on access to information, protection of human rights, and women’s and LGBT rights.  Prashar highlighted the viral #MeToo Movement as an example of a campaign that harnessed the power of social media to give voice to the voiceless, shape awareness around a global issue, and spur a broader dialogue around power and wealth imbalances.  Social media has the power to change opinion, policy, and even legislation, but this power must be used responsibly.   Given the gravity of present threats to civil society and democracy, Prashar called for courage and leadership rooted in the civic values of human equality, social justice, and pluralism. She also challenged civil society organizations to be agents of change by building alliances with businesses, academia, media, and other partners on issues such as rule of law, freedom of expression, and inequality.  “The answers will come from collaboration between sectors – not just nationally but internationally – with one thing in common: concern for humanity and public interest,” Prashar concluded. This was the fourth lecture to be held in memory of the Rt Hon Sir Michael Palliser GCMG, who died in 2012. Sir Michael had a long and distinguished career in the British Diplomatic Service, served as Vice Chair of the Board of Salzburg Global Seminar, and was a founding trustee of the London-based 21st Century Trust, which now works exclusively with Salzburg Global.  Prashar said Salzburg Global Seminar has provided a base for such creative thinking, intercultural exchange, and collaboration between sectors and countries for 70 years. “It is institutions such as Salzburg Global Seminar, the dedication of individuals like Sir Michael, and the indomitable human spirit which make this a hopeful world.”  The fourth Palliser Lecture entitled “Democracy and Civil Society – A Shrinking Space?” was delivered by the Rt Hon the Baroness Usha Prashar on March 16, 2018 at the Grange St. Paul's Hotel in London, UK. 
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Interlinking Challenges, Interdisciplinary Solutions
Interlinking Challenges, Interdisciplinary Solutions
Salzburg Global Seminar 
The 17 global goals set out in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development are nothing short of ambitious. Building on from the Millennium Development Goals, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to “transform our world,” calling for action in both developed and developing countries. While the broad goals each have specific targets, no one goal can be achieved in isolation. Efforts to achieve one goal will help to advance another—and failures to address some will lead to negative impacts on others.  Quality education (SDG 4) greatly improves health and wellbeing (SDG 3), which in turn can increase prosperity, but increased consumption that often comes with that can hinder local and global efforts to tackle climate change (SDG 13). Similarly, reducing conflict (SDG 16) may have benefits for employment and economic growth, but these cannot be sustained unless inequalities in education and access to health care are also addressed. Without holistic action for equality and social justice, peace may be short-lived or conflict may continue by other means. Achieving the targets set out in any of the SDGs thus calls for an interdisciplinary and cross-sector approach.  Recognizing the significant challenge that comes in adopting such an approach, Salzburg Global Seminar is convening the session, Climate Change, Conflict, Health, and Education: Targeting Interdisciplinary Research to Meet the SDGs, at Schloss Leopoldskron, Salzburg, Austria, starting this Sunday, March 18. The intensive three-day session will bring together 65 researchers, policymakers and development experts to explore how research can be more effectively translated into policy and practice in order to identify the interlinkages—and tensions—between the SDGs, and how top research funders can help lead the way. One such leading research funder is session partner, the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF), which is a £1.5bn fund established by the British government to help UK researchers work in partnership with researchers in developing countries to make significant progress in meeting the SDGs. Representing the GCRF at the session is UK Research and Innovation, a newly created body that brings together the seven UK research councils, Innovate UK and Research England. Professor Andrew Thompson, Chief Executive, Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and UK Research and Innovation Champion for the Global Challenges Research Fund, said: “We're delighted to partner with Salzburg Global Seminar to explore the ways excellent research of the kind being undertaken through the Global Challenges Research Fund can help to tackle the most stubborn development challenges across and between the Sustainable Development Goals.”  The session will enable discussion and exploration that span research, policy and practice. This will be achieved through a series of panel discussions and hands-on exercises that will examine the opportunities, challenges, and trade-offs involved in developing interdisciplinary approaches to the implementation of the SDGs related to climate change, conflict, health, and education. The session will also look to identify current research gaps and look at how to communicate the complexity of interdisciplinary research in order to shape evidence-based policy and practice.  Through its programs, Salzburg Global Seminar seeks to bridge divides, expand collaborations and transform systems. In order to take the work of this session beyond Schloss Leopoldskron and advocate for change in their own sectors, participants will co-create a Salzburg Statement. The Statement will offer key recommendations for various stakeholders and serve as a call to action to help participants personally as well as their institutions and communities. “Finding solutions to long-standing, seemingly intractable problems and the specific challenges that the SDGs look to mitigate against requires new ways of thinking and new approaches,” says Salzburg Global Program Director Dominic Regester.  “We are delighted that so many experts across different sectors and geographies have given willingly of their time to come to Salzburg. We very much hope that the Statement that will be collectively authored during and after the session will help advance understanding of and opportunities for interdisciplinary research.” The session, Climate Change, Conflict, Health, and Education: Targeting Interdisciplinary Research to Meet the SDGs, is being held in partnership with UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) and the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF). More information is available online: www.salzburgglobal.org/go/605 To join in the discussions online, follow the hashtag #SGSsdgs on Twitter
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Former CIA and FBI Director Calls for Renewed Trust in Beleaguered Intelligence Agencies
Former CIA and FBI Director Calls for Renewed Trust in Beleaguered Intelligence Agencies
Sarah Sexton 
“Help restore trust.”  According to the former CIA and FBI director, William H. Webster, this was the “most important thing” the audience of law students could do, “with the kind of training, education, and exposure you’re getting… to make a serious contribution to [your] country.” Webster, the first and only person to have served as director of both the CIA and the FBI, posed this challenge during the sixth annual Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program, which gathered 54 law students from the US’ top law schools last month in Washington, DC to explore how they could apply their legal training to careers in public service.  His challenge to this cadre of future top lawyers and public servants comes at a time of growing mistrust in America – mistrust of the mainstream media, mistrust of government, and mistrust of the intelligence services. The latter has surprisingly been led primarily by the country’s own president, Donald J. Trump. Now 94 years old but still chair of the Homeland Security Advisory Council, Webster reflected on his long career in public service – from his military service during World War Two, to his appointments as a Federal District Court and then US Appeals Court judge, to his work with the FBI and later CIA – commenting on the rising tension between the White House and the US intelligence community.  In the wake of attacks on the FBI for missing a tipster’s warning on the suspect who carried out the February 14 school shooting in Parkland, Florida, which saw the deaths of 14 students and three teachers, Webster came to the FBI’s defense, stating, “This is one of the really great organizations of our country, and it attracts some of the ablest, most dedicated Americans that you could want to know or work with.”  “Now, they’ll make mistakes; they’re not infallible,” Webster continued, acknowledging the missed Parkland tip as one such error that exposed a need for improvement. “But we cannot afford to undermine the credibility and trustworthiness of the FBI as long as they continue to earn that trust.”  Webster recalled the day in February 1978 when he was sworn in as FBI Director, inheriting an agency tarnished by a variety of Watergate-era abuses, including illegal break-ins called “black-bag jobs.” Standing before President Jimmy Carter and US Attorney General Griffin Bell at his swearing-in ceremony, Webster knew he needed to address the need for change.  As he closed his remarks at the ceremony, Webster said, “Together, we’re going to do the work that the American people expect of us in the way that the constitution demands of us.”  To Webster’s surprise, his words would later be engraved on a bronze medallion that now adorns the entrance to a conference room at FBI headquarters.  This, Webster said, reflects the bureau’s ongoing commitment to fulfilling its responsibilities with integrity.  As a former federal judge, Webster came to the FBI with built-in credibility, and he preferred that his agents refer to him as “judge” rather than “director,” in part to convey his independence and probity. Webster also brought in assistants with law degrees to help evaluate proposals and to ensure that bureau initiatives conformed to statutes and guidelines.  Webster carried this practice over to the CIA after his appointment as director of central intelligence. One such assistant was John Bellinger III, then a recent graduate of Harvard Law School, who joined Webster as his special assistant in 1988, supporting the judge as he led the US intelligence community through the end of the Cold War, the invasion of Panama, the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, and the Persian Gulf War.  Bellinger went on to serve as a legal advisor to both the US Department of State and the National Security Council during the George W. Bush administration. Speaking at the same event, Bellinger also shared his experiences with the students.   “I remember vividly as a 28-year-old going with [Webster] to Europe after the end of the Cold War,” Bellinger recalled. “Sitting in the back rooms with the intelligence chiefs in Germany and in Britain to talk through what the future of Europe would be after that period in time – it was for me, as a young special assistant, an extraordinary period. I learned a lot from you.”  Bellinger urged the students hailing from law schools at several of America’s top universities – Columbia University, Duke University, Georgetown University, Harvard University, New York University, University of Chicago, University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania, University of Virginia, Stanford University, and Yale University – to consider working as special assistants to political appointees throughout the government.  “I had two special assistants when I was legal adviser,” Bellinger said, “and this is an extraordinary way as a young person to watch a successful leader do their job and to help that person.”  Bellinger and Webster now both serve on the advisory board of the Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law, established by Salzburg Global Seminar in memory of the Washington “superlawyer” who served as White House Counsel to Presidents Carter and Clinton. Lloyd Cutler also served as chair of Salzburg Global’s Board of Directors for a decade and advocated passionately for mentoring young leaders – both from the US and across the globe – who displayed a commitment to shaping a better world through the rule of law. Since its founding in 2012, the Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program has carried forward Cutler’s leadership in both public and private practice of law and continues to empower rising legal professionals from around the world. This year’s Salzburg Cutler Fellows represented 23 countries, including Argentina, Indonesia, Israel, Jamaica, Pakistan and the United States.  “It’s been my privilege to be part of the Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program,” said Bellinger, who also attended the 2016 event and later delivered the annual Cutler Lecture. “It’s an extraordinary way to both recognize Lloyd Cutler, who was my senior partner when I was a young associate at Wilmer Cutler, and to help shape the careers of a rising generation of international lawyers committed to public service.”  Recognizing that, as aspiring public servants, this new generation of international lawyers might someday work in agencies charged with sensitive responsibilities, often operating under secret or classified conditions, Webster closed by further underscoring the importance of gaining and maintaining trust.  “[These agencies] have to rely on your integrity – or what they perceive as your integrity – and you have to be worthy of that trust.”   The Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program is held under the auspices of the Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law. The annual program collaborates with 11 of the leading US law schools. This year's session was sponsored by NYU Washington and Arnold & Porter. 
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Salzburg Cutler Fellows – Applying Legal Training to Public Service on a Global Stage
Salzburg Cutler Fellows – Applying Legal Training to Public Service on a Global Stage
Sarah Sexton 
Speaking to 54 law students at the United States Institute of Peace on Friday, February 23, Seventh Circuit Chief Judge Diane Wood began her remarks with a reference to a scene from the 1993 film Jurassic Park.  As a car full of visitors to the park speeds down a dirt path to escape a charging T-Rex, Wood narrated, the camera zooms in on the warning written on the car’s side mirror: “Objects in mirror are closer than they appear.”  “I’m here to tell you today that the same message – perhaps not with such dire consequences – holds for international law,” Wood said.  Wood’s remarks opened the sixth Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program, which gathered students representing 23 countries – including Argentina, Indonesia, Israel, Jamaica, and Pakistan – in Washington, DC to discuss the future of international law and public service. While international legal frameworks put in place since World War Two have fostered the effortless flow of ideas, goods, and services around the world, Wood said, challenges have also emerged, including drug trade, online financial scams, and human trafficking.  “The borderless world has some sinister consequences too,” Wood said, “but these are things that we are dealing with right now in the courts.”  Over two days, February 23-24, the Cutler Fellows engaged with prominent legal professionals and public servants, including Judge Wood; Ivan Šimonović, United Nations Assistant Secretary-General and Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect; and William H. Webster, former CIA and FBI director.   The Fellows also worked with faculty advisors from each of the participating law schools – University of Chicago, Columbia University, Duke University, Georgetown University, Harvard University, University of Michigan, New York University, University of Pennsylvania, Stanford University, University of Virginia, and Yale University – to sharpen their research papers tackling issues in international law ranging from trade and investment law to the law of war. Faculty representatives Matthew Waxman of Columbia Law School and Alex Whiting of Harvard Law School engaged in a luncheon discussion with the Fellows, focusing on the role and recent developments of the International Criminal Court (ICC). Whiting spoke from his experience in the Office of the Prosecutor at the ICC from 2010-13.  On Friday evening, former FBI and CIA director Judge Webster joined in a conversation with John B. Bellinger, III, former US Legal Adviser, reflecting on recent events in the United States and calling for the restoration of the values of public service and fierce integrity across party lines.  On Saturday at NYU Washington, Šimonović offered the Fellows advice based on his own work in diplomacy, justice, and international institutions. Recalling his experience as a member of the Croatian Delegation at the 1995 Dayton Peace Talks, Šimonović said, “Always remember the importance of cultural context in international negotiations.”  The Fellows were also joined on Saturday by mentors from institutions including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and New Markets Lab to discuss how legal training can be used for the public good. Two mentors, Joseph Klingler and Eric Lorber, described their journeys from their participation as students in the Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program to their current work as an associate at Foley Hoag LLP and senior advisor to the Undersecretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence at the US Treasury Department, respectively.  The Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program was established in memory of Lloyd N. Cutler, the Washington “superlawyer” who served as White House Counsel to Presidents Carter and Clinton. Cutler also served as Chair of Salzburg Global’s Board of Directors for a decade and advocated passionately for mentoring young leaders with a commitment to shaping a better world through law and rule of law.  Since its founding in 2012, the Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program has carried forward Lloyd Cutler’s legacy and continues to empower rising legal professionals from around the world.  Following this year’s Program, one student will be selected to travel to Salzburg, Austria – the home of Salzburg Global Seminar – in May 2018 to serve as rapporteur at this year’s high-level meeting of the Public Sector Strategy Network, a multi-year initiative at Salzburg Global run in partnership with the Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Court and apolitical. The Salzburg Cutler Fellows Program is held under the auspices of the Lloyd N. Cutler Center for the Rule of Law. The annual program collaborates with 11 of the leading US law schools. This year's program was sponsored by NYU Washington and Arnold & Porter. More information on the session is available here. 
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Salzburg Global Explores How Radical Technology-Driven Changes are Impacting Financial Markets and Economies
Salzburg Global Explores How Radical Technology-Driven Changes are Impacting Financial Markets and Economies
Salzburg Global Seminar 
Salzburg Global Seminar helped cap off the Securities Commission Malaysia’s (SC Malaysia) latest World Capital Markets Symposium with a candid conversation on how technology is changing the financial services industry. The program, which took place immediately after this year’s World Capital Markets Symposium, was convened by Salzburg Global and the SC Malaysia at the Hotel Mandarin Oriental in Kuala Lumpur. Guest speakers included Benjamin Glahn, vice president at Salzburg Global; Masamichi Kono, deputy secretary-general at the OECD; Douglas Flint, former chairman of HSBC and a member of the Salzburg Global Forum on Finance Advisory Committee; Junko Nakagawa, executive vice president, executive managing director and chief risk officer at Nomura Asset Management; and David Wright, chair of EUROFI, a partner at Flint-Global, former secretary general of IOSCO, and a member of the Salzburg Global Forum on Finance Advisory Committee. Around 40 securities regulators, investors, bankers, and market practitioners engaged in the program and were welcomed by Ranjit Ajit Singh, chairman of the SC Malaysia. Following Singh’s remarks, Glahn, Kono, Flint, Nakagawa, and Wright engaged in discussion and debate about the topic of the 2018 Salzburg Global Forum on Finance in a Changing World, The Promise and Perils of Technology: Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Cybercrime, and FinTech. The annual Forum, which is off-the-record, takes place at Schloss Leopoldskron, in Salzburg, Austria each June. Public and private sector thought leaders are invited to take part in the two-day gathering, which focuses on issues critical to the future of financial markets and global economic growth and stability, and aims to stimulate important conversations on major trends unfolding across today’s financial landscape, including their implications and the responses they necessitate. The 2018 Forum will assess how radical technology-driven changes may impact societies, economics and financial markets around the world, what this means for policy, regulation, and practitioners in the short and longer term, and how technology can be utilized positively. Speaking after the discussion, Benjamin Glahn said, “This was a highly engaging panel and debate, and I would like to extend our sincere thanks to the Securities Commission Malaysia and Ranjit Ajit Singh for co-hosting this panel at the conclusion of a very successful World Capital Markets Symposium. I would also like to express our gratitude to each of our panelists who shared their time and expertise following the conclusion of the World Capital Markets Symposium. “Artificial intelligence, big data, cryptocurrencies, fintech, and cybercrime heavily featured in this year’s World Capital Markets symposium, and in the discussion afterward there was an interest to engage in this area further. It’s critical for us to understand the implications and responses to the changes taking place in global financial markets, and everyone agreed that the 2018 Forum on Finance in a Changing World will be a perfect place to continue these discussions in June.”
View full set on Flickr The Salzburg Global Seminar session, The Promise and Perils of Technology: Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Cybercrime, and FinTech, will take place at Schloss Leopoldskron, Salzburg, Austria, between June 24 and June 26, 2018. For registration information, please click here.
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Katrina Scotto di Carlo - Serving People and Profit at the Local Level
Katrina Scotto di Carlo - Serving People and Profit at the Local Level
Oscar Tollast 
During the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance – The Courageous Director: Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet, and Profit? – participants were asked to consider what attributes make a director “courageous.” Katrina Scotto di Carlo, co-founder of Placemaker, a tech platform for independent businesses, says she finds this question “surprisingly difficult” to answer. Fittingly, Scotto di Carlo considered this question, and others posed to her while sitting in Max Reinhardt’s former office at Schloss Leopoldskron. Reinhardt was a director of a different kind, but one who achieved widespread recognition as a major theater figure of the 20th Century. Scotto di Carlo says the director, in a boardroom sense, also has to help hold many of the pieces together – not of a play, but of a business. “I really think we’re stepping into some uncertain times and some major instability globally. It’s a time when people will have to stand up from all sectors and be courageous,” she says. “I do believe corporations have a really important role to play, and the question is whether they’ll play that role.” Scotto di Carlo, who considered herself somewhat of an outsider at the session, says, “I find that my role in nearly every business meeting is the same here as it is everywhere else, which I didn’t expect. That role is often to be the really weird thinker. I think that the way I come at problems is just really different. As a kid, I would get penalized for it because a lot of teachers thought I was joking. Nowadays, it is seen as helpful, but my mind is somewhat overly creative. In a business setting, it poses interesting questions.” Beyond defining what it means to be “courageous,” participants at the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance also explored the second half of the session title: “Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet and Profit?” Much of the focus of the three-day discussion was on the multinational/planet level. But for Scotto di Carlo, this question is just as important at the local/community level. Scotto di Carlo played an instrumental role in her local community in Portland, Oregon, USA, as a member of the City of Portland’s Socially Responsible Investments Committee. The efforts by her and others led to Portland City Council divesting from all corporate securities in April 2017. Looking back at why this decision was made, she says: “The city looked at just like the huge commotion that was coming out of this and they said, ‘You know what? This isn’t why we were elected. We were elected to deal with the homeless population. We were elected to deal with the housing situation. We weren’t elected to spend hours and hours and hours on this investment piece, so we’re just going to divest.’” Each year, the council will review the investment policy and decide whether it should be changed. Scotto di Carlo says, “The biggest fear I have is that that’s not the solution to divesting. That means we only have US Treasuries to invest in, which with Trump is like an unknown. The solution would be that we look at a municipal bank like the Bank of North Dakota or something like this... The City of Portland is not putting anywhere near the amount of resources needed to create that solution currently. When April comes, it’s going to be: we killed this vehicle, we didn’t build another one.” Scotto di Carlo believes one of the problems with municipal governments is what they choose to measure as investment. She adds: “To me, a really interesting challenge would be how we measure the overall investment and using investment in the broadest definition possible to understand what it means to invest in community, what municipal government’s role is, and then how that investment compares to Wall Street.” WATCH: Placemaker co-founder Katrina Scotto di Carlo explains the City of Portland Council's decision to divest of all corporate securities The Socially Responsible Investment Committee featured six members representing different domains. Scotto di Carlo was selected to capitalize on her expertise of independent businesses. Placemaker, which was established by Scotto di Carlo and her husband in Michael in 2010, was design to help support independent businesses in Portland. Scotto di Carlo describes it as a “loyalty program to the community, not just an individual business.” Users of the platform can earn and spend points anywhere in their town. Information is stored on their Placemaker card or mobile app. Scotto di Carlo says, “It makes it so that the experience of shopping and eating local is one experience that you share in the community rather than you just going to separate businesses. You feel like you’re going into a solid community where every business is working together.” The platform was launched as an experiment. Di Carlo concedes she didn’t realize how much work it would be, but other communities have since come on board with networks popping up in Victoria, BC, Canada, and Western Massachusetts and Monadnock, NH, USA. Placemaker seeks community partners such as business associations, municipal governments, and economic development people to get networks off the ground. These partners license Placemaker and distribute it to their independent businesses. Scotto di Carlo says, “A customer on average, if they engage at a Placemaker business, will go to nine other businesses on the network. That’s the sort of return we’re seeing on the data.” Studies show that local businesses recirculate a greater share of every dollar in their local economy than national chains. One such study, conducted by Civic Economics in Monadnock showed that independent retailers saw a local recirculation of revenue rate of 62 percent, versus 13 percent by national chains. Commenting on money staying local, Scotto di Carlo says, “That ability for one customer’s experience in an independent business to create community wealth is real, and it’s perhaps one of the most approachable ways that an individual citizen can create community wealth. It’s just shopping, eating local, and providing money for the people that live there – their neighbors.” Scotto di Carlo attended The Salzburg Global program The Courageous Director: Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet, and Profit?, which is part of the multi-year series, the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance. The session is being supported by Shearman & Sterling LLP, BNY Mellon, UBS, Barclays, CLP Group, Goldman Sachs, and Teledyne Technologies. More information on the session can be found here.
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Report now online Building a Global Community - Salzburg Global LGBT Forum: The First Five Years
Report now online Building a Global Community - Salzburg Global LGBT Forum: The First Five Years
Louise Hallman 
Since 1947, Salzburg Global Seminar has challenged current and future leaders to shape a better world. For seventy years, our Fellows have tackled issues of global concern including education, health, environment, economics, governance, peace-building, the rule of law and protection of human rights.  Since 2013, the advancement of LGBT human rights has joined that list of issues as we seek to shape a better world for everyone – including people of all sexual orientations and gender identities. Founded five years ago, the Salzburg Global LGBT Forum was formed to establish a truly global space to reflect upon and advance LGBT human rights discussions around the world.  Today, the Salzburg Global LGBT Forum is an international network that connects over 150 Fellows in 70 countries across six continents, spanning multiple sectors, generations, cultures and sexual orientations and gender identities. This new, 200-page publication, Building a Global Community - Salzburg Global LGBT Forum: The First Five Years, chronicles the first five years of the Salzburg Global LGBT Forum: the Fellows’ stories that they’ve shared, the wide-ranging issues we’ve addressed, and the impact the Forum has had on individuals, institutions and ideas advancing LGBT human rights around the world. The report was generously supported by the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth.  “Fundamental human rights concern us all. The Salzburg Global LGBT Forum brings together queer and straight, representing gender in many expressions, in short: people with overlapping, changing identities. Whether homo-, bi- or heterosexual, cis-, inter- or transgender, our diverse backgrounds and lives are connected by our shared interest to advance LGBT equality globally.” — Dr. Klaus Mueller, Founder and Chair, Salzburg Global LGBT Forum “Throughout Salzburg Global’s history, the rule of law and protection of human rights have played a central role in our programming and impact – as critical elements for personal dignity and wellbeing, equality and social cohesion, successful economies and effective international relations. With this track record, the decision to create the Salzburg Global LGBT Forum was a natural and logical, yet bold, step.” — Clare Shine, Vice President and Chief Program Officer, Salzburg Global Seminar “I am extremely proud of how the Salzburg Global LGBT Forum has advanced human rights... Public understanding and public policy have advanced considerably, but the challenges across the world remain great. The Salzburg Global LGBT Forum is a place where they can be addressed.” — Stephen L. Salyer, President and Chief Executive Officer, Salzburg Global Seminar “For our ministry, it has been very important to support the Salzburg Global LGBT Forum financially… For us, it is important to make visible these different situations as they exist in Europe and in other parts of the world, and this includes discussing the problems too. We learn from the LGBT Forum how discussions in Germany influence other countries, and how their discussions in other countries influence us in Germany.” — Ralf Kleindiek, German State Secretary for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth Download the report as a PDF
* LGBT: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender. We are using this term as it is widely recognized in many parts of the world, but we would not wish it to be read as in any way exclusive of other cultures, groups or terms, either historical or contemporary.
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