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Report now online - Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration
Report now online - Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration
Salzburg Global Seminar 

In September 2017, 57 academics, professionals, practitioners, observers, and students of American Studies from 25 countries, convened at Schloss Leopoldskron, Salzburg, Austria for the session Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration.

As this weekend marks the one year anniversary of Donald J. Trump's inauguration as president of the United States on January 20, 2017, it is a timely occasion for the publication of the report from the 15th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA).

Since its founding in 1947, Salzburg Global Seminar has been examining, debating and dissecting America and its culture and institutions. Drawing on the 70 years of cross-border exchange that began at Schloss Leopoldskron in the aftermath of war, the multi-disciplinary four-day program examined what the “American Dream” means in today’s world and assessed progress in the United States toward fulfilling that potential. 

Fairness and justice, immigration issues, incarceration practices, demographic changes, implications and challenges of new policies, and the fulfillment of domestic and foreign expectations were all key elements of focus for the session. The ultimate question for scrutiny and discussion was “How does the apparent reality of life and justice in America today reflect on the historic ‘American Dream’ and the ‘Promise of America,’ globally and in the United States since the founding of the Salzburg Seminar in American Studies in 1947?”

This report offers summaries of each of the day’s thematic discussions and a list of resources provided by the participants, as well as interviews with some faculty members and speakers:

  • Elaine T. May: Despite being preoccupied with safety, Americans have made themselves less secure
  • Lecia Brooks: Dedicated to ending injustice in America
  • Linell Letendre: Justice requires a culture of leadership, professionalism and respect
  • Dreamscape: Exploring race and justice in America
  • Asif Efrat: The new US administration has shown less interest in international cooperation
  • Nancy Gertner: “Lawyers should effect social change”
  • Chris Lehmann: American justice is still a model for the world – but a flawed model

 

Download the report as a PDF

To request a print copy, please email press[at]salzburgglobal.org

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Lecia Brooks – Dedicated to Ending Injustice in America
Lecia Brooks speaking at the 15th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association
Lecia Brooks – Dedicated to Ending Injustice in America
Oscar Tollast 

The Southern Poverty Law Center, based in Montgomery, Alabama, is committed to fighting hate, teaching tolerance, and seeking justice. Lecia Brooks, the Center’s outreach director, frequently gives presentations around the United States to put this message across to others. As a faculty member of the 15th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA), Brooks wanted to put another thought in her audience’s minds.

“What I wanted to convey to the participants in the seminar was that these issues that they do such a good job in chronicling for academic purposes, and they spend their time researching, have real-life consequences; that they’re representative of people’s real lives; and that the threat to civil rights and civil liberties that we’re seeing thus far under the Trump administration are affecting people already. I wanted it to be more than an intellectual discourse, but I sought to put a face to some of the story, the pictures we were painting,” she says.

A few weeks before the symposium in Salzburg in September 2017, events unfolded in Charlottesville, Virginia that grabbed the world’s attention. Hundreds of white nationalists and supremacists descended on the town for the Unite the Right rally: a far-right rally organized to oppose the removal of a statue of Civil War general, Robert E. Lee. The night before the rally, about 250 people took part in a torchlight procession through the University of Virginia campus, shouting phrases such as “You will not replace us!” and “Blood and soil.” The group clashed with counter-protesters and left following the arrival of police.

On the day of the rally, the violence continued. In the early hours of the afternoon, one person was killed and others were injured after a car went into a group of counter-protesters. A helicopter monitoring the clashes also crashed that day, killing the two Virginia State Patrol troopers who were on board.

Brooks, who also serves as director of the Civil Rights Memorial Center, chose to share images from the torchlight procession in one of her presentations. She says, “It was just so incredible, and it is just frightening that it happened in the United States and right in the open on a university campus. First and foremost, I wanted to document that it happened, remind people that it happened, and remind people that it could happen in their university as well.”

The Southern Poverty Law Center’s Teaching Tolerance project has led to the creation of anti-bias resources such as documentaries, lesson plans, and curricula, which are distributed to educators free-of-charge across the country. Brooks says the Center hopes to educate young people about the threat from the far right and “talk more about our aspirations to create diverse and inclusive communities and to make clear that those diverse communities are for everyone, including white males who are feeling marginalized at this time, [which] makes them particularly vulnerable to messages from white supremacists.”

Brooks wanted to attend the 15th SSASA symposium – Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration – to have a conversation about justice, civil rights, and the issues surrounding them with a global community. She says, “I thought it would be really important, and it has been.”

On the first morning of the symposium, participants woke up to remarks from US President Donald J. Trump made during a rally in Alabama. He criticized National Football League (NFL) owners for not punishing players who protested, who he accused of disrespecting the American flag. In a series of tweets posted the following day, he said, “If a player wants the privilege of making millions of dollars in the NFL, or other leagues, he or she should not be allowed to disrespect our Great American Flag (or Country) and should stand for the National Anthem. If not, YOU’RE FIRED. Find something else to do!”

His remarks are thought to be in reference to the actions of players such as Colin Kaepernick, who first chose to sit during the anthem in August 2016. Kaepernick sat down during the anthem to protest the oppression of people of color in the US and issues with police brutality. Following a conversation with Nate Boyer, a former NFL player and US army veteran, Kaepernick chose to kneel, not sit, during the anthem from that point onward to show more respect for the armed forces.

In response to Trump’s remarks, a movement sparked on social media with people tweeting a photo of themselves kneeling using the hashtags #TakeAKnee and #TakeTheKnee. In the NFL games that followed, several teams linked arms while other teams chose to stay in the locker room during the national anthem. More players were also seen to be kneeling.

Commenting on the origin of the “Take the Knee” movement, Brooks says, “I think that it is up to us as individuals to talk about what the movement [and] what this protest is about. The narrative, unfortunately, has been switched by the president and other people. They’re trying to frame it as a protest that is disrespecting the United States flag or disrespecting the anthem, and thus the military and [what] all of America stands for when in actuality it’s a protest.

“It’s a way of protest that was used during the Civil Rights movement with Dr [Martin Luther] King [Jr.] and others on numerous occasions…. That’s what the Take the Knee protest is about, protesting injustice, in particular, racial injustice. It has nothing to do with the flag. 

“People who have participated in the protests are veterans [and] from all walks of people. What people can do is correct the narrative. Be sure to correct people when they mistakenly think it’s about something else. Talk to people about it and decide how they can support anyone – in this case NFL players – in exercising their First Amendment right to protest.”

Brooks, who grew up in Oakland, California, first joined the Southern Poverty Law Center in 2004 as director of Mix It Up at Lunch Day, a Teaching Tolerance program which aimed to help break down racial, cultural and social barriers in schools. Before this, she worked for 12 years in several roles for the National Conference for Community and Justice in its Los Angeles office.

She says, “I grew up very much aware of the racial oppression of the United States and fortunately found a way to channel that, to help advance equality and equity for African-Americans. That has, over the course of my life, exposed me to the inequities that people suffer because of who they are. So, that’s just really important to me in my life. It’s my life. It’s my work. It’s what I’m dedicated to: trying to end injustice or call out injustice.”


Lecia Brooks was a participant of the Salzburg Global program Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration, which is part of Salzburg Global’s multi-year series Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA). More information on the session can be found here. You can follow all of the discussions on Twitter by following the hashtag #SSASA.

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Chris Lehmann – American Justice is Still a Model for the World – But a Flawed Model
Chris Lehmann in conversation at the 15th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association
Chris Lehmann – American Justice is Still a Model for the World – But a Flawed Model
Oscar Tollast 

Chris Lehmann, executive director of the Central and East Europe Law Institute (CEELI), is inspired to improve the world and spread justice. Speaking at the 15th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA), he says, “My father was an Episcopal priest, and I think he just had a very clear idea of what was right and wrong. I think you can either spend your life trying to make the world a better place or not.”

Lehmann’s decision to attend the 15th SSASA symposium – Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration – was in part thanks to Salzburg Global Program Director Charles Ehrlich. Lehmann says, “Charles has been up to Prague several times to my Institute and had been wanting to get me down here, which I was eager to do. This session seemed particularly relevant, partly because there would be quite a bit of focus on transatlantic legal issues –, European perspectives of America –, but with a lot of that focus being on our criminal justice system. So, it was kind of a perfect fit for me.”

The CEELI Institute, based in Prague, was established to advance the rule of law in the world. Lehmann, who previously worked for the US Department of Justice, has served as its executive director since 2014. The Institute works with judges and lawyers from around the world on matters relating to comparative law, judicial issues, and human rights. Reflecting on justice in the US, Lehmann says, “The US, obviously, in some ways continues to be a model for the rest of the world, but it is a very flawed model.”

Lehmann highlights the “extensive use of plea bargaining” and “police issues” as two areas in the US that require further attention. His hope in attending this symposium was to see how others around the world viewed these issues, which would help him assess where the US is today, whether the country still  has a system viewed as worth emulating.

As of September, Lehmann believes this view is a “very mixed bag.” He says. “There are theoretical aspects of the US justice system which continue to be aspirational, but I think there are some deep flaws that are making a lot of people in Europe skeptical of US solutions.”

The CEELI Institute is based at the Villa Grébovka, a historic building that dates back to 1871. The Institute was founded in 1999 and has provided post-graduate legal education and exchange to more than 5,000 legal professionals. Lehmann says the Institute has found it very valuable to bring people together for several days and allow them to step out of their lives and focus on the topic at hand.

Noting the similarity with Salzburg Global Seminar, Lehman says, “I think you’ve recognized that some of the best discussions go on at the coffee hours, at the meals, and in the evenings, and in strolling around the parks. It’s not just what takes place in the sessions.

“If you go to a conference somewhere at a hotel, you don’t necessarily have quite that sense of convening. There’s just a huge value to a serene setting like this. It puts people at ease, it relaxes them, and it just allows this sort of dawn till dusk conversation to go on in and out of formal settings.

“There are lots of different learning styles. Some people will be on their feet in the classroom, and there are other people that are much more comfortable having a quiet conversation over a cup of coffee after the session is over. This really enables everybody to kind of be drawn into the discussion.”


Chris Lehmann was a participant of the Salzburg Global program Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration, which is part of Salzburg Global’s multi-year series Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA). More information on the session can be found here. You can follow all of the discussions on Twitter by following the hashtag #SSASA.

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Elaine May - Despite Being Preoccupied with Safety, Americans Have Made Themselves Less Secure
Elaine May at the 15th symposium of the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association
Elaine May - Despite Being Preoccupied with Safety, Americans Have Made Themselves Less Secure
Oscar Tollast 

Elaine May is no stranger to the Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA), nor is it her first time at Schloss Leopoldskron. The professor and author last attended a SSASA symposium in 2012 – Screening America: Film and Television in the 21st Century, which was her fourth time at the Schloss. She says, “I’ve been here before, and I’ve always found it very exciting, intellectually stimulating, beautiful, luxurious [and] delicious. It’s always a wonderful experience. I especially love having the opportunity to discuss issues that pertain to the United States with people from other countries, because I learn so much from their perspective.”

May was speaking having returned just under five years later for her fifth visit for the SSASA symposium, Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration to hear how other countries’ citizens perceived the new American administration under President Donald J. Trump. She also provided the key note presentation on the first evening of the symposium, titled, “The American Dream and the Quest for Security – the Promise and the Perils.”

Among the points May made was that the United States had a “crisis in democracy,” and that the American Dream has been problematic since the beginning of the Second World War. While it’s since been possible for members of the middle class and working class to achieve material aspects of the American Dream, they live in fear that dream could be taken away from them in an instant, she says.

May, Regents professor of American studies and history, and chair of the Department of History at the University of Minnesota, says, “That level of anxiety and fear – that was first manifest in the atomic age and in the Cold War – has taken various forms over the rest of the 20th Century, and now into the 21st. That has kind of conditioned Americans to live in a world in which they always feel that they are in danger. That leads to a breakdown of belief and investment in the common good, and in a kind of mistrust in the government to work on behalf of all citizens, and in a fear and suspicion of strangers – whoever those strangers are.”

This fear has changed the way Americans live their daily lives, according to May. It changed the way citizens vote and how they envisage their nation’s identity. In short, May says this has had a long-term effect on undercutting democracy. She adds, “Americans have become quite preoccupied with issues of safety and security since the early Cold War… Everything they have done to try to make themselves more safe and secure has made them less safe and secure.”

Expanding on this point, May says US citizens have become so preoccupied looking over their shoulder that they’ve failed to notice what is happening in front of them and the growing influence of the country’s elite one percent. She says, “Keeping a gun in their pocket wasn’t going to prevent [people] from metaphorically losing their shirts to Wall Street and other big money financial institutions that are really robbing them – not somebody walking behind them on the street.”

May’s keynote drew several responses from participants, one of whom suggested a hate narrative was more dominant in the US than the fear narrative. Responding to this suggestion, May says, “I think the two are very related. I think that the hate comes out of fear. If we really knew each other, you wouldn’t fear each other. Hate is a stronger more aggressive stand than fear. Fear feels weak, and hate feels strong.”

As a past president of the Organization of American Historians and the American Studies Association, May’s interest in her country’s history cannot be questioned. Her interest in US history first bloomed when she lived in Japan as a student in 1968. She says, “I hadn’t really understood how important it would be for me to know my own national history until I lived abroad as an American, and I had to speak as an American, and I had to represent a country that I was profoundly alienated from in 1968 between the Vietnam War and all the other horrible things that were happening at the time. I had to speak for my country – not just as a person who saw herself as among the dissenters within the country but as the citizen of the United States that was wreaking havoc all over Asia, including Japan.

“I thought I better learn something. I went back to the US and started taking US history courses, which I hadn’t really done much of. When I graduated a year later, I felt I didn’t really know enough. I had applied for the Peace Corps and got in but realized I had nothing to teach anybody until I knew more. I thought I better go to graduate school. Then I went to graduate school, and then I kind of just got on the train.”

Her graduate school days are now long behind her and she certainly now has a lot more to teach people. In addition to her work as a professor, May has authored several books, most recently Fortress America: How We Embraced Fear and Abandoned Democracy (2017) and America and the Pill: A History of Promise, Peril, and Liberation (2010). Alongside multi-time Salzburg Global Fellow Reinhold Wagenleitner, she also co-edited Here, There, and Everywhere: The Foreign Politics of American Popular Culture (2000), a collection of essays that originated at a Salzburg Global session.


Elaine May was a participant of the Salzburg Global Program Life and Justice in America: Implications of the New Administration, which is part of Salzburg Global's multi-year series Salzburg Seminar American Studies Association (SSASA). More information on the session can be found here. You can follow all of the discussions on Twitter by following the hashtag #SSASA

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Fellows co-create Salzburg Statement for a Multilingual World
Fellows co-create Salzburg Statement for a Multilingual World
Louise Hallman 

Salzburg Global Seminar’s 2017 program of sessions closed on a high on December 16 as Fellows representing over 25 countries and many more languages came together to co-create a new “Salzburg Statement.”

Provisionally titled “The Salzburg Statement for a Multilingual World,” the document encapsulates five intensive days’ discussions at the session, Springboard for Talent: Language Learning and Integration in a Globalized World.

The session, held in partnership with ETS, Qatar Foundation International and Microsoft, examined the importance and implications of national language policies; the role of language in creating social cohesion; different forms of and strategies for language teaching; the advantages of multilingualism in the work place and in building more entrepreneurial societies; and the importance of linguistic diversity and language rights vis-a-vis the Sustainable Development Goal on Education (SDG4).

The Statement, which Fellows continued to draft over the holiday season, will offer clear recommendations with regards to both learning and teaching and translating and interpreting, as well as issuing a call to action for a wide variety of actors to value and embrace multilingualism.

Once the Fellows have agreed on a final text in early 2018, several of the multilingual Fellows will translate the text into multiple languages in time for it to be formally published on February 21 – International Mother Language Day.

In addition to the Statement, the 50 Fellows also co-drafted several questions that will be used to help drive a year-long conversation on social media – #multilingualismmatters – about the importance and value of multilingualism in multiple contexts. The questions are broad and wide-ranging, with the intention of engaging Salzburg Global Fellows from other sessions and the general public in the discussion. The conversation will be launched on the Salzburg Global Seminar public Facebook page to encourage maximum participation. 

The #multilingualismmatters campaign, will be launched to coincide with the publication of the Salzburg Statement for a Multilingual World. 

To receive updates about the Statement and to join in the #multilingualismmatters campaign, “like” Salzburg Global Seminar on Facebook or subscribe to our newsletter: www.salzburgglobal.org/go/subscribe


The session, Springboard for Talent: Language Learning and Integration in a Globalized World is part of Salzburg Global Seminar multi-year series  Education for Tomorrow’s World. The session is being held in partnership with ETS, the Qatar Foundation and Microsoft. To keep up to date with the conversations taking place during the session, follow #SGSedu on Twitter and Instagram.

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Springboard for Talent - Humanizing Language Learning Through Technology
Microsoft's Mark Sparvell presents at Salzburg Global Seminar session on multilingualism
Springboard for Talent - Humanizing Language Learning Through Technology
Louise Hallman 

“Technology [in the classroom] should humanize learning, not just digitize the curriculum,” insists Mark Sparvell, education leader at tech giant Microsoft.

Sparvell offered Fellows a multitude of technological tools to do just this as part of a presentation on “Humanizing language experiences – the promising role of new technologies” at the session, Springboard for Talent: Language Learning and Integration in a Globalized World in December.

The first tool to wow his audience was the Microsoft Translator app. Via either the website translator.microsoft.com or the smartphone app, Fellows were able to read a translation of Sparvell’s presentation in real time in one of 11 languages. Microsoft currently offers text-to-text translation for 60 languages with more to be added to the speech-to-text service used in Salzburg. Microsoft’s VoIP service, Skype, also offers real-time speech-to-speech translations in eight languages with more than 50 supported text-to-text in instant messaging.

While Sparvell readily admits that current digital translation services are by no means “perfect” he rightly points out that “they offer a means of understanding” that might not otherwise be possible.

These services can be used to help facilitate cultural exchanges between students across the world (as demonstrated by Microsoft’s annual “Skype-a-Thon” which connected half a million students in 48 hours in 2017), but also aid better understanding with parents from immigrant communities. 

As another Fellow shared, her Japanese immigrant mother was intimidated by language barriers when the family moved to English-speaking Canada, hindering her ability to engage with her daughter’s school teachers and resulting in her being mislabeled as a disinterested parent. While many schools cannot afford to hire professional translation services for events such as large-scale parents’ meetings or one-on-one parent-teacher conferences, especially in diverse multilingual communities, where there is not just one dominant foreign language,  using a free tool such as Microsoft’s real-time translator, while imperfect, could help parents overcome such language barriers.

Digital translation tools are improving rapidly thanks to artificial intelligence and machine learning. However, as Sparvell points out, “tech is a tool,” much like a fork, a spade or a digger, and tools can enable us to do things at greater scale, but tools still need some human initiation and guidance.

But not everyone has access to the same tools. “Is tech breaking down barriers or just putting up more?” one Fellow asked. Software can be given away for free (as was the case for all the tools demonstrated in Salzburg), but if schools do not have reliable hardware, electricity or Internet access that free software is not useful.

Recognizing this injustice, many large corporations, including Microsoft, are engaging in philanthropic ventures to offer hardware to schools, improve national electric grid access and stability, and roll out mobile and broadband internet. This is not a purely philanthropic gesture: “Education is everybody’s business.” 

Useful links:

OneNote in the Foreign Language Classroom

Talking with Multilingual Parents with Translator App 

Introducing Microsoft Translator [video]

Using Translator for parent teacher interviews [video]

Live Translate with Skype [video]


The session, Springboard for Talent: Language Learning and Integration in a Globalized World is part of Salzburg Global Seminar multi-year series  Education for Tomorrow’s World. The session is being held in partnership with ETS, the Qatar Foundation and Microsoft. To keep up to date with the conversations taking place during the session, follow #SGSedu on Twitter and Instagram.

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Anna Matheson - Reflections From a Palace in Salzburg
Anna Matheson - Reflections From a Palace in Salzburg
Anna Matheson 

Anna Matheson was a participant of the Salzburg Global session, Building Healthy Communities: The Role of Hospitals, which took place in December 2017. This article was first published by Massey University. The original article can be accessed here.

Who would have thought there is an organization whose main activity is facilitating pop-up think tanks to challenge current and future leaders to solve issues of global concern? Well, the Salzburg Global Seminar does just that.

The organization runs sessions with invited guests on globally relevant, diverse topics in their glorious home, the Schloss Leopoldskron, in Salzburg, Austria, which also happens to be the where The Sound of Music was filmed. As an aside, although the movie was filmed on the magnificent grounds of the Schloss, the inside was not filmed as a session was underway at the time – and it was considered extremely important the fellows were not disturbed in their ruminating.

Founded in 1947 by three Harvard students, the Salzburg Global Seminar was intended to be an international forum for those seeking a better future for Europe and the world following World War II. As the organization’s website states: “The founders believed that former enemies could talk and learn from each other, even as countries reeled from the ravages of war. Looking beyond Europe’s immediate needs for physical reconstruction and economic development, they argued for a 'Marshall Plan of the Mind' as a critical element of recovery.” Bringing countries together to talk, who had long been at war, was meant to be facilitated by the beautiful and calm setting of the Schloss Leopoldskron.

I arrived at the Schloss, surrounded by snowy mountains and at the edge of the icy lake, the Leopoldskroner Weiher, to participate in Session 592, Building Healthy Communities: The Role of Hospitals. I was invited to attend because of my research and thinking on health inequalities and complexity in social systems. Most of the other 59 fellows were leaders from health and community organizations from around the world. The largest representation was from the United States of America as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (the biggest public health philanthropy organization in the US and funder of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health) was a partner in the session.

Schloss Leopoldskron on the edge of an icy Leopoldskroner Weiher (Picture: Anna Matheson)

Throwing About Ideas

The four and a half days of the meeting were full of talking, presenting, sharing, planning and eating in majestic, history-laden rooms. A photographer was continually capturing the discussions; a graphic artist depicted the days’ ideas and each morning on our desks was a four-page newsletter with photos and stories of the previous day's ponderings. Not insignificant was the Bierstube – the basement bar in the Schloss where conversations continued – as well as table tennis, foosball, karaoke and dancing.

Another aside I need to mention was the “dance-off” that spontaneously happened among the men on at least two of the nights – though I would be remiss if I suggested there was a clear winner among the Colombians, the Scottish or the Rwandans.

When we weren’t hanging out in an Austrian basement, we were self-organizing into working groups to come up with tangible plans for action around the main themes that were emerging from the meeting.

Dr Anna Matheson participating at Building Healthy Communities: The Role of Hospitals (Picture: Salzburg Global Seminar/Katrin Kerschbaumer)

An Extraordinary Experience

The connecting thread was the imperative to be “people-centered”, even when considering big system challenges. One of the working groups began developing a framework for systems change to create more sustainable health systems; many at the session were frustrated by their inability to sustain health system changes and the often unseen barriers to change that existed. Another group aimed to build a business case for why urgent attention should be given to understanding the intersection between individual, community and planetary health. A third group developed plans to create a global toolkit to help hospitals improve their capacity to contribute to building healthier communities. A fourth group mapped out a strategy for how to take “innovation to scale” in order to impact significant public health challenges. Another focused on the role of clinicians and how services could be developed to assist them to reach further into the community. A sixth group explored how global attention might be moved away from prioritizing big data and more towards people-centered intelligence. While the last working group planned a collection of articles to be written for the British Medical Journal to showcase the session themes and experiences of those attending.

Participating in Session 592 of the Salzburg Global Seminar was extraordinary. Aside from the surreal setting and scintillating company, particularly heartening for me, was hearing all the passionate discussions that normalized talk of complex systems and the need for systems change in relation to health and equity. The tide is really turning. Fragmented, linear thinking and actions that disregard the wider systems within which they are nested is falling out of favor. A deep and considered understanding of social complexity is shifting away from being on the fringe as it becomes clearer that different thinking, and different methods and actions, are necessary if the complex global, and local, challenges that we face are to have any chance of being addressed. Impacting the rising prevalence of chronic health conditions in our communities and reducing health inequalities are just two of these challenges that require systems change in order for progress to be made. I am looking forward to the on-going work, and new relationships formed from Session 592 in pursuit of this progress.

Dr Anna Matheson is a senior lecturer in Public Health from the School of Health Sciences and Associate Investigator, Te Pūnaha Matatini – Centre of Research Excellence for Complex Systems, Data and Networks.

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